Historiography Assignment

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Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches. Scholars discuss historiography by topic – such as the "historiography of the United Kingdom", the "historiography of Canada", "historiography of the British Empire", the "historiography of early Islam", the "historiography of China" – and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the ascent of academic history, there developed a body of historiographic literature. The extent to which historians are influenced by their own groups and loyalties – such as to their nation state – is a debated question.[1]

The research interests of historians change over time, and there has been a shift away from traditional diplomatic, economic, and political history toward newer approaches, especially social and cultural studies. From 1975 to 1995, the proportion of professors of history in American universities identifying with social history increased from 31 to 41 percent, while the proportion of political historians decreased from 40 to 30 percent.[2] In 2007, of 5,723 faculty in the departments of history at British universities, 1,644 (29%) identified themselves with social history and 1,425 (25%) identified themselves with political history.[3]


In the early modern period, the term historiography meant "the writing of history", and historiographer meant "historian". In that sense certain official historians were given the title "Historiographer Royal" in Sweden (from 1618), England (from 1660), and Scotland (from 1681). The Scottish post is still in existence.

Historiography was more recently defined as "the study of the way history has been and is written – the history of historical writing", which means that, "When you study 'historiography' you do not study the events of the past directly, but the changing interpretations of those events in the works of individual historians."[4]


Further information: Ancient history

Understanding the past appears to be a universal human need, and the "telling of history" has emerged independently in civilisations around the world.[weasel words] What constitutes history is a philosophical question (see philosophy of history).[weasel words]

The earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, though no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name. By contrast, the term "historiography" is taken to refer to written history recorded in a narrative format for the purpose of informing future generations about events. In this limited sense, "ancient history" begins with the early historiography of Classical Antiquity, in about the 5th century BCE.

East Asia[edit]

Ancient China[edit]

Main articles: Chinese historiography and Twenty-Four Histories

Further information: Chinese literature

In China, the Zuo Zhuan, attributed to Zuo Qiuming in the 5th century BCE, is the earliest written of narrative history in the world and covers the period from 722 to 468 BCE.[5] The Classic of History is one of the Five Classics of Chinese classic texts and one of the earliest narratives of China. The Spring and Autumn Annals, the official chronicle of the State of Lu covering the period from 722 to 481 BCE, is among the earliest surviving historical texts to be arranged on annalistic principles in the world. It is traditionally attributed to Confucius(551–479 BCE). Zhan Guo Ce was a renowned ancient Chinese historical compilation of sporadic materials on the Warring States period compiled between the 3rd and 1st centuries BCE.[6]

Sima Qian (around 100 BCE) was the first in China to lay the groundwork for professional historical writing. His written work was the Shiji (Records of the Grand Historian), a monumental lifelong achievement in literature. Its scope extends as far back as the 16th century BCE, and it includes many treatises on specific subjects and individual biographies of prominent people, and also explores the lives and deeds of commoners, both contemporary and those of previous eras. His work influenced every subsequent author of history in China, including the prestigious Ban family of the Eastern Han Dynasty era.[7]

Traditional Chinese historiography describes history in terms of dynastic cycles. In this view, each new dynasty is founded by a morally righteous founder. Over time, the dynasty becomes morally corrupt and dissolute. Eventually, the dynasty becomes so weak as to allow its replacement by a new dynasty.[8]


Main article: Historiography of Korea

Further information: Korean literature

The tradition of Korean historiography was established with the Samguk Sagi, a history of Korea from its allegedly earliest times. It was compiled by Goryeo court historian Kim Busik after its commission by King Injong of Goryeo (r. 1122 - 1146). It was completed in 1145 and relied not only on earlier Chinese histories for source material, but also on the Hwarang Segi written by the Silla historian Kim Daemun in the 8th century. The latter work is now lost.[9]


Main article: Historiography of Japan

Further information: Japanese literature

The earliest works of history produced in Japan were the Rikkokushi, a corpus of six national histories covering the history of Japan from its mythological beginnings until the 9th century. The first of these works were the Nihon Shoki, compiled by Prince Toneri in 720.

Hellenic world[edit]

Main article: Greek historiography

Further information: Ancient Greek literature

The earliest known systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, a development which would be an important influence on the writing of history elsewhere around the Mediterranean region. Greek historians greatly contributed to the development of historical methodology. The earliest known critical historical works were The Histories, composed by Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484–425 BCE) who became known as the "father of history".[10] Herodotus attempted to distinguish between more and less reliable accounts, and personally conducted research by travelling extensively, giving written accounts of various Mediterranean cultures. Although Herodotus' overall emphasis lay on the actions and characters of men, he also attributed an important role to divinity in the determination of historical events.

The generation following Herodotus witnessed a spate of local histories of the individual city-states (poleis), written by the first of the local historians who employed the written archives of city and sanctuary. Dionysius of Halicarnassus characterized these historians as the forerunners of Thucydides,[11] and these local histories continued to be written into Late Antiquity, as long as the city-states survived. Two early figures stand out: Hippias of Elis, who produced the lists of winners in the Olympic Games that provided the basic chronological framework as long as the pagan classical tradition lasted, and Hellanicus of Lesbos, who compiled more than two dozen histories from civic records, all of them now lost.

Thucydides largely eliminated divine causality in his account of the war between Athens and Sparta, establishing a rationalistic element which set a precedent for subsequent Western historical writings. He was also the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, while his successor Xenophon (c. 431 – 355 BCE) introduced autobiographical elements and character studies in his Anabasis.

The proverbial Philippic attacks of the Athenian orator Demosthenes (384–322 BCE) on Philip II of Macedon marked the height of ancient political agitation. The now lost history of Alexander's campaigns by the diadochPtolemy I (367–283 BCE) may represent the first historical work composed by a ruler. Polybius (c. 203 – 120 BCE) wrote on the rise of Rome to world prominence, and attempted to harmonize the Greek and Roman points of view.

The Chaldean priest Berossus (fl. 3rd century BCE) composed a Greek-language History of Babylonia for the Seleucid king Antiochus I, combining Hellenistic methods of historiography and Mesopotamian accounts to form a unique composite. Reports exist of other near-eastern histories, such as that of the Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon; but he is considered semi-legendary and writings attributed to him are fragmentary, known only through the later historians Philo of Byblos and Eusebius, who asserted that he wrote before even the Trojan war.

Roman world[edit]

Main article: Roman historiography

Further information: Latin literature

The Romans adopted the Greek tradition, writing at first in Greek, but eventually chronicling their history in a freshly non-Greek language. While early Roman works were still written in Greek, the Origines, composed by the Roman statesman Cato the Elder (234–149 BCE), was written in Latin, in a conscious effort to counteract Greek cultural influence. It marked the beginning of Latin historical writings. Hailed for its lucid style, Julius Caesar's (100–44 BCE) de Bello Gallico exemplifies autobiographical war coverage. The politician and orator Cicero (106–43 BCE) introduced rhetorical elements in his political writings.

Strabo (63 BCE – c. 24 CE) was an important exponent of the Greco-Roman tradition of combining geography with history, presenting a descriptive history of peoples and places known to his era. Livy (59 BCE – 17 CE) records the rise of Rome from city-state to empire. His speculation about what would have happened if Alexander the Great had marched against Rome represents the first known instance of alternate history.[12]

Biography, although popular throughout antiquity, was introduced as a branch of history by the works of Plutarch (c. 46 – 127 CE) and Suetonius (c. 69 – after 130 CE) who described the deeds and characters of ancient personalities, stressing their human side. Tacitus (c. 56 – c. 117 CE) denounces Roman immorality by praising German virtues, elaborating on the topos of the Noble savage.

Middle Ages to Renaissance[edit]

Main article: Historiography of the Middle Ages


See also: Christendom, Hagiography, Medieval literature, and Ethiopian historiography

Christian historiography began early, perhaps as early as Luke-Acts, which is the primary source for the Apostolic Age, though its historical reliability is disputed. In the first Christian centuries, the New Testament canon was developed. The growth of Christianity and its enhanced status in the Roman Empire after Constantine I (see State church of the Roman Empire) led to the development of a distinct Christian historiography, influenced by both Christian theology and the nature of the Christian Bible, encompassing new areas of study and views of history. The central role of the Bible in Christianity is reflected in the preference of Christian historians for written sources, compared to the classical historians' preference for oral sources and is also reflected in the inclusion of politically unimportant people. Christian historians also focused on development of religion and society. This can be seen in the extensive inclusion of written sources in the Ecclesiastical History written by Eusebius of Caesarea around 324 and in the subjects it covers.[13] Christian theology considered time as linear, progressing according to divine plan. As God's plan encompassed everyone, Christian histories in this period had a universal approach. For example, Christian writers often included summaries of important historical events prior to the period covered by the work.[14]

Writing history was popular among Christian monks and clergy in the Middle Ages. They wrote about the history of Jesus Christ, that of the Church and that of their patrons, the dynastic history of the local rulers. In the Early Middle Ages historical writing often took the form of annals or chronicles recording events year by year, but this style tended to hamper the analysis of events and causes.[15] An example of this type of writing is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which was the work of several different writers: it was started during the reign of Alfred the Great in the late 9th century, but one copy was still being updated in 1154. Some writers in the period did construct a more narrative form of history. These included Gregory of Tours and more successfully Bede, who wrote both secular and ecclesiastical history and who is known for writing the Ecclesiastical History of the English People.[13]

During the Renaissance, history was written about states or nations. The study of history changed during the Enlightenment and Romanticism. Voltaire described the history of certain ages that he considered important, rather than describing events in chronological order. History became an independent discipline. It was not called philosophia historiae anymore, but merely history (historia).

Islamic world[edit]

See also: Historiography of early Islam, Muqaddimah, and Muslim historians

Muslim historical writings first began to develop in the 7th century, with the reconstruction of the Prophet Muhammad's life in the centuries following his death. With numerous conflicting narratives regarding Muhammad and his companions from various sources, it was necessary to verify which sources were more reliable. In order to evaluate these sources, various methodologies were developed, such as the "science of biography", "science of hadith" and "Isnad" (chain of transmission). These methodologies were later applied to other historical figures in the Islamic civilization. Famous historians in this tradition include Urwah (d. 712), Wahb ibn Munabbih (d. 728), Ibn Ishaq (d. 761), al-Waqidi (745–822), Ibn Hisham (d. 834), Muhammad al-Bukhari (810–870) and Ibn Hajar (1372–1449).[16] Historians of the medieval Islamic world also developed an interest in world history.[17] Islamic historical writing eventually culminated in the works of the Arab Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406), who published his historiographical studies in the Muqaddimah (translated as Prolegomena) and Kitab al-I'bar (Book of Advice).[18][19] His work was forgotten until it was rediscovered in the late 19th century.[20]


During the Age of Enlightenment, the modern development of historiography through the application of scrupulous methods began.


French philosopheVoltaire (1694–1778) had an enormous influence on the development of historiography during the Age of Enlightenment through his demonstration of fresh new ways to look at the past. Guillaume de Syon argues:

Voltaire recast historiography in both factual and analytical terms. Not only did he reject traditional biographies and accounts that claim the work of supernatural forces, but he went so far as to suggest that earlier historiography was rife with falsified evidence and required new investigations at the source. Such an outlook was not unique in that the scientific spirit that 18th-century intellectuals perceived themselves as invested with. A rationalistic approach was key to rewriting history.[21]

Voltaire's best-known histories are The Age of Louis XIV (1751), and his Essay on the Customs and the Spirit of the Nations (1756). He broke from the tradition of narrating diplomatic and military events, and emphasized customs, social history and achievements in the arts and sciences. He was the first scholar to make a serious attempt to write the history of the world, eliminating theological frameworks, and emphasizing economics, culture and political history. Although he repeatedly warned against political bias on the part of the historian, he did not miss many opportunities to expose the intolerance and frauds of the church over the ages. Voltaire advised scholars that anything contradicting the normal course of nature was not to be believed. Although he found evil in the historical record, he fervently believed reason and educating the illiterate masses would lead to progress.

Voltaire explains his view of historiography in his article on "History" in Diderot's Encyclopédie: "One demands of modern historians more details, better ascertained facts, precise dates, more attention to customs, laws, mores, commerce, finance, agriculture, population." Already in 1739 he had written: "My chief object is not political or military history, it is the history of the arts, of commerce, of civilization – in a word, – of the human mind."[22] Voltaire's histories used the values of the Enlightenment to evaluate the past. He helped free historiography from antiquarianism, Eurocentrism, religious intolerance and a concentration on great men, diplomacy, and warfare.[23]Peter Gay says Voltaire wrote "very good history", citing his "scrupulous concern for truths", "careful sifting of evidence", "intelligent selection of what is important", "keen sense of drama", and "grasp of the fact that a whole civilization is a unit of study."[24][25]

David Hume[edit]

At the same time, philosopher David Hume was having a similar effect on the study of history in Great Britain. In 1754 he published the History of England, a 6-volume work which extended "From the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 1688". Hume adopted a similar scope to Voltaire in his history; as well as the history of Kings, Parliaments, and armies, he examined the history of culture, including literature and science, as well. His short biographies of leading scientists explored the process of scientific change and he developed new ways of seeing scientists in the context of their times by looking at how they interacted with society and each other – he paid special attention to Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle, Isaac Newton and William Harvey.[26]

He also argued that the quest for liberty was the highest standard for judging the past, and concluded that after considerable fluctuation, England at the time of his writing had achieved "the most entire system of liberty, that was ever known amongst mankind."[27]

Edward Gibbon[edit]

The apex of Enlightenment history was reached with Edward Gibbon's monumental six-volume work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, published on 17 February 1776. Because of its relative objectivity and heavy use of primary sources, its methodology became a model for later historians. This has led to Gibbon being called the first "modern historian".[28] The book sold impressively, earning its author a total of about £9000. Biographer Leslie Stephen wrote that thereafter, "His fame was as rapid as it has been lasting."

Gibbon's work has been praised for its style, its piquant epigrams and its effective irony. Winston Churchill memorably noted, "I set out upon...Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire [and] was immediately dominated both by the story and the style.... I devoured Gibbon. I rode triumphantly through it from end to end and enjoyed it all."[29] Gibbon was pivotal in the secularizing and 'desanctifying' of history, remarking, for example, on the "want of truth and common sense" of biographies composed by Saint Jerome.[30] Unusually for an 18th-century historian, Gibbon was never content with secondhand accounts when the primary sources were accessible (though most of these were drawn from well-known printed editions). "I have always endeavoured," he says, "to draw from the fountain-head; that my curiosity, as well as a sense of duty, has always urged me to study the originals; and that, if they have sometimes eluded my search, I have carefully marked the secondary evidence, on whose faith a passage or a fact were reduced to depend."[31] In this insistence upon the importance of primary sources, Gibbon broke new ground in the methodical study of history:

In accuracy, thoroughness, lucidity, and comprehensive grasp of a vast subject, the 'History' is unsurpassable. It is the one English history which may be regarded as definitive.... Whatever its shortcomings the book is artistically imposing as well as historically unimpeachable as a vast panorama of a great period.[32]

19th century[edit]

The tumultuous events surrounding the French Revolution inspired much of the historiography and analysis of the early 19th century. Interest in the 1688 Glorious Revolution was also rekindled by the Great Reform Act of 1832 in England.

Thomas Carlyle[edit]

Thomas Carlyle published his three-volume The French Revolution: A History, in 1837. The first volume was accidentally burned by John Stuart Mill's maid. Carlyle rewrote it from scratch.[33] Carlyle's style of historical writing stressed the immediacy of action, often using the present tense. He emphasised the role of forces of the spirit in history and thought that chaotic events demanded what he called 'heroes' to take control over the competing forces erupting within society. He considered the dynamic forces of history as being the hopes and aspirations of people that took the form of ideas, and were often ossified into ideologies. Carlyle's The French Revolution was written in a highly unorthodox style, far removed from the neutral and detached tone of the tradition of Gibbon. Carlyle presented the history as dramatic events unfolding in the present as though he and the reader were participants on the streets of Paris at the famous events. Carlyle's invented style was epic poetry combined with philosophical treatise. It is rarely read or cited in the last century.[34][35]

French historians: Michelet and Taine[edit]

In his main work Histoire de France (1855), French historian Jules Michelet (1798-1874) coined the term Renaissance (meaning "rebirth" in French), as a period in Europe's cultural history that represented a break from the Middle Ages, creating a modern understanding of humanity and its place in the world.[36] The 19-volume work covered French history from Charlemagne to the outbreak of the French Revolution. His inquiry into manuscript and printed authorities was most laborious, but his lively imagination, and his strong religious and political prejudices, made him regard all things from a singularly personal point of view.[37]

Michelet was one of the first historians to shift the emphasis of history to the common people, rather than the leaders and institutions of the country. He had a decisive impact on scholars. Gayana Jurkevich argues that led by Michelet:

19th-century French historians no longer saw history as the chronicling of royal dynasties, armies, treaties, and great men of state, but as the history of ordinary French people and the landscape of France.[38]

Hippolyte Taine (1828-1893), although unable to secure an academic position, was the chief theoretical influence of French naturalism, a major proponent of sociological positivism, and one of the first practitioners of historicist criticism. He pioneered the idea of "the milieu" as an active historical force which amalgamated geographical, psychological, and social factors. Historical writing for him was a search for general laws. His brilliant style kept his writing in circulation long after his theoretical approaches were passé.[39]

Cultural and constitutional history[edit]

One of the major progenitors of the history of culture and art, was the Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt[40]Siegfried Giedion described Burckhardt's achievement in the following terms: "The great discoverer of the age of the Renaissance, he first showed how a period should be treated in its entirety, with regard not only for its painting, sculpture and architecture, but for the social institutions of its daily life as well."[41] Burckhardt's best known work is The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860).

His most famous work was The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, published in 1860; it was the most influential interpretation of the Italian Renaissance in the nineteenth century and is still widely read. According to John Lukacs, he was the first master of cultural history, which seeks to describe the spirit and the forms of expression of a particular age, a particular people, or a particular place. His innovative approach to historical research stressed the importance of art and its inestimable value as a primary source for the study of history. He was one of the first historians to rise above the narrow nineteenth-century notion that "history is past politics and politics current history.[42]

By the mid-19th century, scholars were beginning to analyse the history of institutional change, particularly the development of constitutional government. William Stubbs's Constitutional History of England (3 vols., 1874–78) was an important influence on this developing field. The work traced the development of the English constitution from the Teutonic invasions of Britain until 1485, and marked a distinct step in the advance of English historical learning.[43] He argued that the theory of the unity and continuity of history should not remove distinctions between ancient and modern history. He believed that, though work on ancient history is a useful preparation for the study of modern history, either may advantageously be studied apart. He was a good palaeographer, and excelled in textual criticism, in examination of authorship, and other such matters, while his vast erudition and retentive memory made him second to none in interpretation and exposition.[44]

Von Ranke and professionalization in Germany[edit]

Main article: Historiography of Germany

The modern academic study of history and methods of historiography were pioneered in 19th-century German universities, especially the University of Göttingen. Leopold von Ranke (1795–1886) at Berlin was a pivotal influence in this regard, and was the founder of modern source-based history.[45][46] According to Caroline Hoefferle, "Ranke was probably the most important historian to shape historical profession as it emerged in Europe and the United States in the late 19th century."[47][48]

Specifically, he implemented the seminar teaching method in his classroom, and focused on archival research and analysis of historical documents. Beginning with his first book in 1824, the History of the Latin and Teutonic Peoples from 1494 to 1514, Ranke used an unusually wide variety of sources for a historian of the age, including "memoirs, diaries, personal and formal missives, government documents, diplomatic dispatches and first-hand accounts of eye-witnesses". Over a career that spanned much of the century, Ranke set the standards for much of later historical writing, introducing such ideas as reliance on primary sources, an emphasis on narrative history and especially international politics (aussenpolitik).[49] Sources had to be solid, not speculations and rationalizations. His credo was to write history the way it was. He insisted on primary sources with proven authenticity.

Ranke also rejected the 'teleological approach' to history, which traditionally viewed each period as inferior to the period which follows. In Ranke's view, the historian had to understand a period on its own terms, and seek to find only the general ideas which animated every period of history. In 1831 and at the behest of the Prussian government, Ranke founded and edited the first historical journal in the world, called Historisch-Politische Zeitschrift.

Another important German thinker was Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, whose theory of historical progress ran counter to Ranke's approach. In Hegel's own words, his philosophical theory of "World history... represents the development of the spirit's consciousness of its own freedom and of the consequent realization of this freedom.".[50] This realization is seen by studying the various cultures that have developed over the millennia, and trying to understand the way that freedom has worked itself out through them:

World history is the record of the spirit's efforts to attain knowledge of what it is in itself. The Orientals do not know that the spirit or man as such are free in themselves. And because they do not know that, they are not themselves free. They only know that One is free.... The consciousness of freedom first awoke among the Greeks, and they were accordingly free; but, like the Romans, they only knew that Some, and not all men as such, are free.... The Germanic nations, with the rise of Christianity, were the first to realize that All men are by nature free, and that freedom of spirit is his very essence.[51]

Karl Marx introduced the concept of historical materialism into the study of world historical development. In his conception, the economic conditions and dominant modes of production determined the structure of society at that point. In his view five successive stages in the development of material conditions would occur in Western Europe. The first stage was primitive communism where property was shared and there was no concept of "leadership". This progressed to a slave society where the idea of class emerged and the State developed. Feudalism was characterized by an aristocracy working in partnership with a theocracy and the emergence of the Nation-state. Capitalism appeared after the bourgeois revolution when the capitalists (or their merchant predecessors) overthrew the feudal system and established a market economy, with private property and Parliamentary democracy. Marx then predicted the eventual proletarian revolution that would result in the attainment of socialism, followed by Communism, where property would be communally owned.

Previous historians had focused on cyclical events of the rise and decline of rulers and nations. Process of nationalization of history, as part of national revivals in the 19th century, resulted with separation of "one's own" history from common universal history by such way of perceiving, understanding and treating the past that constructed history as history of a nation.[52] A new discipline, sociology, emerged in the late 19th century and analyzed and compared these perspectives on a larger scale.

Macaulay and Whig history[edit]

Thomas Macaulay produced his most famous work of history, The History of England from the Accession of James the Second, in 1848. His writings are famous for their ringing prose and for their confident, sometimes dogmatic, emphasis on a progressive model of British history, according to which the country threw off superstition, autocracy and confusion to create a balanced constitution and a forward-looking culture combined with freedom of belief and expression. This model of human progress has been called the Whig interpretation of history.[53]

His legacy continues to be controversial; Gertrude Himmelfarb wrote that "most professional historians have long since given up reading Macaulay, as they have given up writing the kind of history he wrote and thinking about history as he did."[54] However, J. R. Western wrote that: "Despite its age and blemishes, Macaulay's History of England has still to be superseded by a full-scale modern history of the period".[55]

The term Whig history, coined by Herbert Butterfield in his short book The Whig Interpretation of History in 1931, means the approach to historiography which presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and enlightenment, culminating in modern forms of liberal democracy and constitutional monarchy. In general, Whig historians emphasized the rise of constitutional government, personal freedoms and scientific progress. The term has been also applied widely in historical disciplines outside of British history (the history of science, for example) to criticize any teleological (or goal-directed), hero-based, and transhistorical narrative.[56]

Paul Rapin de Thoyras's history of England, published in 1723, became "the classic Whig history" for the first half of the 18th century,.[57] It was later supplanted by the immensely popular The History of England by David Hume. Whig historians emphasized the achievements of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. This included James Mackintosh's History of the Revolution in England in 1688, William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England and Henry Hallam's Constitutional History of England.[58]

The most famous exponent of 'Whiggery' was Thomas Babington Macaulay, who published the first volumes of his The History of England from the Accession of James II in 1848. It proved an immediate success and replaced Hume's history to become the new orthodoxy.[59] His 'Whiggish convictions' are spelled out in his first chapter:

I shall relate how the new settlement was...successfully defended against foreign and domestic enemies; how... the authority of law and the security of property were found to be compatible with a liberty of discussion and of individual action never before known; how, from the auspicious union of order and freedom, sprang a prosperity of which the annals of human affairs had furnished no example; how our country, from a state of ignominious vassalage, rapidly rose to the place of umpire among European powers; how her opulence and her martial glory grew together;... how a gigantic commerce gave birth to a maritime power, compared with which every other maritime power, ancient or modern, sinks into insignificance... the history of our country during the last hundred and sixty years is eminently the history of physical, of moral, and of intellectual improvement.

This consensus was steadily undermined during the post-World War I re-evaluation of European history, and Butterfield's critique exemplified this trend. Intellectuals no longer believed the world was automatically getting better and better. Subsequent generations of academic historians have similarly rejected Whig history because of its presentist and teleological assumption that history is driving toward some sort of goal.[60] Other criticized 'Whig' assumptions included viewing the British system as the apex of human political development, assuming that political figures in the past held current political beliefs (anachronism), considering British history as a march of progress with inevitable outcomes and presenting political figures of the past as heroes, who advanced the cause of this political progress, or villains, who sought to hinder its inevitable triumph. J. Hart says "a Whig interpretation requires human heroes and villains in the story."[61]

20th century[edit]

See also: Category:Historiography by country

20th century historiography in major countries is characterized by a move to universities and academic research centers. Popular history continued to be written by self-educated amateurs, but scholarly history increasingly became the province of PhD's trained in research seminars at a university. The training emphasized working with primary sources in archives. Seminars taught graduate students how to review the historiography of the topics, so that they could understand the conceptual frameworks currently in use, and the criticisms regarding their strengths and weaknesses.[62][63] Western Europe and the United States took leading roles in this development. The emergence of area studies of other regions also developed historiographical practices.

France: Annales School[edit]

Main article: Annales School

The French Annales School radically changed the focus of historical research in France during the 20th century by stressing long-term social history, rather than political or diplomatic themes. The school emphasized the use of quantification and the paying of special attention to geography.[64][65]

The Annales d'histoire économique et sociale journal was founded in 1929 in Strasbourg by Marc Bloch and Lucien Febvre. These authors, the former a medieval historian and the latter an early modernist, quickly became associated with the distinctive Annales approach, which combined geography, history, and the sociological approaches of the Année Sociologique (many members of which were their colleagues at Strasbourg) to produce an approach which rejected the predominant emphasis on politics, diplomacy and war of many 19th and early 20th-century historians as spearheaded by historians whom Febvre called Les Sorbonnistes. Instead, they pioneered an approach to a study of long-term historical structures (la longue durée) over events and political transformations.[66] Geography, material culture, and what later Annalistes called mentalités, or the psychology of the epoch, are also characteristic areas of study. The goal of the Annales was to undo the work of the Sorbonnistes, to turn French historians away from the narrowly political and diplomatic toward the new vistas in social and economic history.[67] For early modern Mexican history, the work of Marc Bloch's student François Chevalier on the formation of landed estates (haciendas) from the sixteenth century to the seventeenth had a major impact on Mexican history and historiography,[68] setting off an important debate about whether landed estates were basically feudal or capitalistic.[69][70]

An eminent member of this school, Georges Duby, described his approach to history as one that

relegated the sensational to the sidelines and was reluctant to give a simple accounting of events, but strived on the contrary to pose and solve problems and, neglecting surface disturbances, to observe the long and medium-term evolution of economy, society and civilisation.

The Annalistes, especially Lucien Febvre, advocated a histoire totale, or histoire tout court, a complete study of a historical problem.

The second era of the school was led by Fernand Braudel and was very influential throughout the 1960s and 1970s, especially for his work on the Mediterranean region in the era of Philip II of Spain. Braudel developed the idea, often associated with Annalistes, of different modes of historical time: l'histoire quasi immobile (motionless history) of historical geography, the history of social, political and economic structures (la longue durée), and the history of men and events, in the context of their structures. His 'longue durée' approach stressed slow, and often imperceptible effects of space, climate and technology on the actions of human beings in the past. The Annales historians, after living through two world wars and major political upheavals in France, were deeply uncomfortable with the notion that multiple ruptures and discontinuities created history. They preferred to stress slow change and the longue durée. They paid special attention to geography, climate, and demography as long-term factors. They considered the continuities of the deepest structures were central to history, beside which upheavals in institutions or the superstructure of social life were of little significance, for history lies beyond the reach of conscious actors, especially the will of revolutionaries.[71]

Noting the political upheavals in Europe and especially in France in 1968, Eric Hobsbawm argued that "in France the virtual hegemony of Braudelian history and the Annales came to an end after 1968, and the international influence of the journal dropped steeply."[72] Multiple responses were attempted by the school. Scholars moved in multiple directions, covering in disconnected fashion the social, economic, and cultural history of different eras and different parts of the globe. By the time of crisis the school was building a vast publishing and research network reaching across France, Europe, and the rest of the world. Influence indeed spread out from Paris, but few new ideas came in. Much emphasis was given to quantitative data, seen as the key to unlocking all of social history.[73] However, the Annales ignored the developments in quantitative studies underway in the U.S. and Britain, which reshaped economic, political and demographic research.[74]

Marxist historiography[edit]

Main article: Marxist historiography

Further information: Communist Party Historians Group

Marxist historiography developed as a school of historiography influenced by the chief tenets of Marxism, including the centrality of social class and economic constraints in determining historical outcomes (historical materialism). Friedrich Engels wrote The Peasant War in Germany

Allegory on writing history by Jacob de Wit (1754). An almost naked Truth keeps an eye on the writer of history. Pallas Athena (Wisdom) on left gives advice.
Bust of Thucydides, Hellenistic copy of a 4th-century BC work
A page of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People
Jules Michelet (1798–1874), later in his career.
Hippolyte Taine (1828–1893)
Ranke established history as a professional academic discipline in Germany.
The 20th century saw the creation of a huge variety of historiographical approaches; one was Marc Bloch's focus on social history rather than traditional political history.

Hickey Home Page

Historiography and Historical Methods

M. Hickey  Old Science Hall Office 130  389-4161hickey@bloomu.edu

Office Hours:  M, W, 4:00-5:00; T, Th 2-3:30.


Navigation links for this syllabus:

Introduction     Required Texts    Course Grade Scale    Paper Form

Class Participation    Multi-Part Library Assignment      Definition of Research Topic and Research Questions

Common Reading Précis Assignments       Individual Reading Précis Assignment

Primary Source Locator Assignment    Historiographic Essay    Research Proposal     

Weekly Schedule of Assignments  


On Plagiarism vs Quoting    On Disruptive Behavior     On Endnote Form    

Hickey's Library and General Research Resources Page


Link to the Library Assignment



This course has two basic components:  a) an introduction to the branch of historical inquiry known as Historiography; b) an introduction to some basic historical research methods.

a) Historiography is the history of historical writing.  We will focus on how people in "western civilizations" have understood the meaning and purposes of history, beginning with the ancient Greeks.  We also will study how methods of "doing" history have changed, particularly during the past 200 years.  

b) Historians ask questions about the past, which they try to answer on the basis of research.  To do this, historians must learn how to read for argument (how to know what another historian is arguing), how to ask historical questions, and how to find historical sources.  We will devote considerable attention to these critical skills.  The culmination of this course will be the production of introductory papers on your own individual research projects. 


Required Texts:

Joyce Appleby, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob, Telling the Truth About History (New York:  Norton, 1995).

Mary Lynn Rampolla, A Pocket Guide to Writing in History, any edition.

both texts are required and are available in the University Store.


Course Grade Scale:

A grade of "A" in this course means that your cumulative score on assignments equals 93 percent or more of possible points. A-=90-92; B+=88-89; B=83-87; B-80-82; C+=78-79; C=73-77; C-=70-72; D+= 68-69; D=60-67.

Your grade will be based upon: Class Participation (10 percent); a Multi-Part Library Assignment (total of 10 percent); Definition of Research Topic and Research Question (total of 10 percent); a Common Reading Précis Assignments (total of 10 percent); an Individual Reading Précis Assignment (10 percent); a Primary Source Locator Assignment (10 percent); a Historiographic Essay (20 percent); and a Research Proposal (20 percent).   

Absence/Late Paper Policy:  I will consider as "excused" absences only those medical, family, or activity related events (etc.) that the student has discussed with me in advance and/or that are documented by the university administration.  I will accept no late papers and I will give no "make up" assignments unless the student has an excused absence. 

Paper Form

All papers for this course must be written in a standard 12 point font (I prefer Times Roman), with one inch margins.  Put your name in the top right hand corner of the page.  All pages must be numbered.  Staple papers in the top left hand corner. 

All quotations must be placed in quotation marks and all quotations, paraphrases, and direct summaries must be accompanied by endnotes in proper form.  See On Plagiarism vs Quoting and On Endnote Form.  Note that there are far more detailed instructions on quoting and paraphrasing in Rampolla, chapters 6 and 7.

A "Do Not Do!" list:  Do not "double-skip" between paragraphs; do not skip lines before starting your first paragraph; do not use fancy or unusual fonts! 

I will not tolerate plagiarism in any form.  Again, see On Plagiarism vs Quoting and Rampolla, chapter 6.


Class Participation(10 percent)

This class is organized as a seminar.  My minimum expectation is that you attend every class having completed all readings for the week. Study questions on the readings are linked to the weekly schedule of assignments (below).  You are to answer these questions as you read and bring your answers to class.  Your grade will be based upon the quality of your contributions to class discussions.  I reserve the option of giving short in-class quizzes on the assigned readings; if I do so, these will be calculated in to your discussion grade.

Your participation grade will fall in direct ratio to the percentage of class meetings that you miss.


Multi-Part Library Assignment (total of 10 percent)

Linked to the syllabus is an Multi-Part Library Assignment.  The assignment is designed to help you develop skills and habits necessary to conduct your own research projects. 

The assignment is divided into two basic sections:  Section A (Secondary Sources); and Section B (Primary Sources).  Each Section has several parts, which require you to complete a number of tasks.  Be sure to read the directions for each part carefully before beginning that portion of the assignment!

You must complete each portion of the assignment on schedule (see the weekly schedule of readings and assignments).    You will get credit for a portion of the assignment only if you have completed that portion of the assignment correctly, according to the instructions.  If you have made errors, you will have two days (after I return your paper) to correct that portion of the assignment.  If, when you turn in the revised paper, it is correct, then you will receive credit; if not, you will receive no credit.

If you complete the entire library assignment (all 11 parts) correctly, you will receive full credit (10 percent of the course grade).  Your grade will fall in direct ratio to the number of portions you fail to complete correctly.


  • A 1  Week II

  • A 2, A 3  Week III

  • A 4, A 5  Week IV

  • B 1, B 2  Week V

  • B 3, B 4  Week VI

  • B 5, B 6  Week VII

Link to the Library Assignment


Definition of Research Topic and Research Questions (total of 10 percent)

You must pick a topic for your own preliminary research project.  You won't be writing a full primary-source based research paper on this topic this semester (that is what students do in 42.398, Research and Writing Skills).  Instead, you will do the "background" research on your topic--you will study what other historians have written on the topic, and you will begin to identify primary sources on the topic.

Definition of Research Topic:  Think about a research topic about which you are interested, and about which you are able to identify a large number of secondary sources.  It is important to choose a topic that will hold your interest, because this topic will be the focus of more than half of your assignments, which account for more than half of your grade. 

It also is important to choose a topic that it "do-able." Students often try to do research on topics that are simply too broad ("the history of the Civil War") or too narrow ("the participation of firemen in the Bloomsburg Fourth of July celebration in 1865").   To ensure that you choose a feasible topic, I require that you:

  • Schedule a brief conference with me to discuss your topic.

  • At the conference, present me with a clear written statement of your research topic. This should be no more than a paragraph, in complete and grammatical sentences.

  • At the conference, present me with a reading list of secondary sources that includes at least 15 sources on your topic (scholarly books and scholarly journal articles only), in proper bibliographic form (see Rampolla, chapter 7, part d-2).

{You don't have to read all of these books and article before you turn in the reading list, but you should start reading them as soon as possible!}

If I approve of your topic and your reading list, you will receive full credit (5 percent).

If I do not approve of your topic and reading list, you will repeat the process until I approve of your topic/reading list.

Definition of Research Questions:  Having a topic is only the most rudimentary starting point for historical research; to carry out serious research, you need to define the questions that you hope to answer.   The questions shape the types of primary sources you must pursue and how you will analyze those sources.  To write a research proposal (one of the requirements of this course),  you must have clear research questions.

Students sometimes try to ask questions that are simply to big to answer in a one semester research project ("how has the influence of big oil companies shaped US foreign policy since World War Two?"), or that are not answerable on the basis of historical research (e.g., because they are really philosophical questions, like "was Stalin more evil than Hitler?"), or that simply have been done to death,  so that the student is unlikely to learn anything "new" (e.g., "Why did Truman drop the A-bomb?" or "Who really killed JFK?").

You really can't start defining clear questions if you haven't read much about your topic.  So I STRONGLY suggest that you begin reading the books and articles on you secondary source reading list as soon as possible.

To prevent you from spending a lot of time on a dead-end project, I want to be sure that  you define your questions as clearly as possible (given the early stage of your research).  I require that you:

  • Schedule a brief conference with me to discuss your research questions.

  • At that conference, present me with a clear written definition of your main research questions.  This should be no more than a paragraph, in complete and grammatical sentences.

If your questions are clear, well-focused, and appear answerable on the basis of historical research, you will receive full credit (5 percent).

If your questions are not clear, well-focused, and answerable, you will repeat the process until I approve of your questions.   


  • Definition of research topic and reading list approval, by the end Week IV

  • Definition of research questions, by the end of Week VI.


Common Reading Précis Assignments (total of 10 percent)

A précis is a very concise summary.  Historians (like all thinking persons) must learn to "read for argument" (in other words, to read in a way that focuses on understanding the author's main point, called the "thesis").  Remember that historians interpret evidence of the past; they make arguments about what the "facts" are and what the "facts" mean.  To understand history and historiography, you must read for argument as well as for "facts."  Writing a précis of an article, chapter, or book requires that you grasp the author's main point and boil it down to a brief explanation. 

Common Reading Précis Assignment 1 will focus on Ernst Breisach, Historiography:  Ancient, Medieval and Modern. 

At the course session at which we complete discussion of Breisach, each of you will chose a chapter (by lottery), on which you will write an in-class précis. 

  • Without quoting the author at all, you must explain the author's thesis (main point) in this chapter in one or two paragraphs

  • Begin your paper by stating as clearly as possible the fundamental question that the author is trying to answer in the chapter. 

  • Then explain as clearly as possible the main point the author makes in answering that question.

You can use your notes to write this in-class précis.  So it is in your best interest to take good notes both when you are reading the book and when we discuss each chapter.  

Remember, I want you to explain the thesis; don't simply describe the topic of the chapter!

If you don't understand the assignment, be sure to talk to me before this class session!

I will grade each précis on the basis of its logic, clarity, and accuracy. 

The assignment will count for 5 percent of your course grade.



Common Reading Précis Assignment 2 will focus on Joyce Appleby, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob, Telling the Truth About History.  Each chapter in this book constitutes a coherent essay.  Your task in this assignment it to write a one-page précis of Chapter 4 of Telling the Truth About History

  • Without quoting the authors at all, you must explain the authors' thesis (main point) in this chapter in one or two paragraphs

  • Begin your paper by stating as clearly as possible the fundamental question that the authors are trying to answer in the chapter. 

  • Then explain as clearly as possible the main point the authors make in answering that question.

Remember, I want you to explain the thesis; don't simply describe the topic of the chapter!

If you don't understand the assignment, be sure to talk to me before you start writing!

I will grade each précis on the basis of its logic, clarity, and accuracy. 



Individual Reading Précis Assignment (10 percent)

You will chose one book from your secondary source reading list on which you will write a précis.  Again, it would be a good idea to start reading the books and articles on your list ASAP!

The book on which you write your précis must be one of the books on your research topic approval reading list, and it must meet the following criteria:

  • a secondary source
  • a monograph in book form
  • published by a scholarly press

In a one-page précis:

  • Without quoting the author at all, you must explain the author's thesis (main point) in one or two paragraphs (max. length of one page). 

  • At the head of your paper, identify the author, title, and publication information for the book using proper bibliography form (Rampolla, 7-d2).

  • Begin your paper by stating as clearly as possible the fundamental question that the author is trying to answer in the book. 

  • Then explain as clearly as possible the main point the author makes in answering that question.

Remember, I want you to explain the thesis; don't simply describe the topic of the book.

If you do not understand the assignment, be sure to talk to me before you start writing!


I will grade each précis on the basis of its logic, clarity, and accuracy. 



Primary Source Locator Assignment (10 percent)

To write a paper based upon your own original research, you need to locate primary sources.  This paper is designed to get you started in the search for primary sources related to your research topic.  

1. Locate and identify a primary source collection or database related to and useful for your research topic. 

2.  Schedule a conference with me to discuss your primary source.

3.  At the conference, present me with a written identification the source collection in correct bibliographic form (see Rampolla, 7-d2).  If I approve, then you can go on to step 3; if I do not approve, then you must repeat steps 1-2.

3.  Write a brief (2-3 page) paper that:

  • in its heading identifies the source collection in correct bibliographic form (see Rampolla, 7-d2)
  • describes in detail the sorts of information found in this source collection
  • explains the kinds of research questions you can address using this collection and why this evidence allows you to address these questions.

REMEMBER, I am asking you to identify a collection of sources, not one specific document!  For instance, you can use entire volume of published memoirs or autobiographies, but you can not use excerpts from a published memoir or a short memoir/autobiographical sketch; you can use an on-line collection of dozens of archival documents, but you can not use an on-line collection with 3-4 documents (etc.).

I will grade your paper on the basis of its logic and clarity and your use of correct form.


  • You must meet with me for approval of primary source by Week XI at the latest
  • The deadline for turning in the paper is the end of Week XII



Historiographic Essay (20 percent)

In this paper, you must explain what historians have argued about your topic.  You must explain how historical interpretations on your topic have changed over time, and you must explain the differences between various “schools” of historical interpretation regarding your topic.   In other words, you need to compare and contrast what many historians have argued about your topic, and you need to think like a historian about why interpretations have changed.   

Preparing for your paper: 

  • You must analyze at least 20 secondary sources (scholarly books and articles in scholarly journals, excluding book reviews and general textbooks!). 
  • Your secondary sources must include a representative sample of  works written about your topic over a broad period of time.  (For instance, if you are writing about the Civil War, you will want to look at works from the "Gilded Age," the Progressive Era, the 1940s-1950s, the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, etc..)
  • Keep very careful bibliographic records on your sources (remember the information you wrote down for each book and article in the Library Assignment?).
  • As you read each book and article, be sure that you take careful notes on the author's thesis, the types of sources the author uses, the relationship between the author's argument and other historical interpretations, etc.  Be sure that your notes indicate the exact page numbers for key quotations, etc.
  • As you read, take notes on the the relative strengths and weaknesses of each work. 
  • As you read, think about how these historians' questions and interpretations have changed over time and try to fit the authors' interpretations fit into "groups" or "schools."  Think about the categories of historical schools discussed by Breisach and in Appleby, et. al..  Very often you will find that historians have formed very clear "schools" of thought on your topic, which are discussed overtly in your secondary sources.    

Writing your paper:

  • Your paper must present and defend a thesis--your argument about the major trends or schools in historical interpretation of your general research topic.
  • Remember, your goal is to make an argument about the historiography on your topic, not about the topic itself.
  • In defending your thesis, you must present detailed evidence from your secondary sources.  These must include properly identified and properly cited quotations from your secondary sources.
  • To support your argument, you must analyze the development of the historiography on your topic either chronologically or thematically (by historiographic “school”), in a manner that traces changes and explains differences in interpretation.  
  • You must provide proper endnote citations to all sources quoted, paraphrased, or summarized in your paper.  Your notes must be precise; they must refer to the specific sections and pages of works that demonstrate the interpretations you are examining in your paper. 
  • Your paper must be at least 5 pages long, not counting the endnotes.

I will grade this paper on the basis of the logic of your argumentation, the clarity of your presentation, the accuracy of your analysis of secondary sources, the use of appropriate sources, and your use of proper form for quotations and endnotes.



Research Proposal (20 percent)

Writing a formal research proposal requires that you think carefully about the questions you wish to answer in your research, why those questions are important, how they relate to what other historians have written, and what specific (existing) sources you will need for your research.  

Your research proposal for this course builds upon your earlier assignments, so you have already done most of the work.

You will write a brief proposal--an essay with a target length of 5 pages (not counting the bibliography) that explains the following:

  • The general area of history addressed by your research (e.g., the history of the Great Depression in the United States).
  • Your specific research topic (e.g., ethnic and religious tensions in Pennsylvania mining communities towns during strikes and other labor conflicts in the 1930s).
  • The precise questions you will address in your research (e.g., how did employers manipulate such tensions as a anti-union strategy, and how did union organizers act to build multi-ethnic/multi-religious alliances).
  • How your question relates to issues raised/discussed by other historians who have worked on similar/related topics; in other words, what do the secondary sources say?  (Use the main ideas explained in your historiographic essay.)
  • Why this question is worth answering from an historian's viewpoint (how would your project contribute to our understanding of the topic?).
  • What primary sources you will use to answer this question.
  • What methods of analysis will you use to draw answers out of the primary sources.

You will attach to the proposal a typed bibliography that follows the guidelines in Rampolla, chapter 7, part d-2. This bibliography must include all primary and secondary sources that you have identified related to your research.

Your bibliography should be divided into a section for Primary Sources and a section for Secondary Sources.

I will grade your proposal on the basis of its logic, clarity, and coverage of the issues detailed above; I will grade your bibliography on the basis of your use of accurate form.  The proposal will account for 75 percent of the assignment grade and the bibliography for 25 percent of the assignment grade. 





Week III:  History in the Late Roman Empire and in the Middle Ages

Readings:  Breisach, chapters 7-10 (pp. 77-152)

DUE:  Library Assignment Part A 2 and A 3

Option--Early Completion of Definition of Research Topic and Readings List (requires short individual conference).  Before defining your topic, be sure that you have read Rampolla, Chapter 4; before finalizing your reading list, be sure to read Rampolla, chapter 2, section B-2.  You may also find Appendix B helpful.


Week IV:  History in the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period

Readings: Breisach, chapters 11-14 (pp. 153-227)

DUE:  Library Assignment Part A 4 and A 5

Option--Early Completion of Definition of Research Topic and Readings List (requires short individual conference). Before defining your topic, be sure that you have read Rampolla, Chapter 4; before finalizing your reading list, be sure to read Rampolla, chapter 2, section B-2.  You may also find Appendix B helpful.


Week V:  History in the Early 19th Century and Introduction to Modern Historiography

We will discuss Breisach, chapters 11-14 and chapters 15-16.


Readings:  Breisach, chapters 15-17 (pp. 228-271)

DUE:  Library Assignment Part B 1 and B 2

Deadline for Definition of Research Topic and Readings List (requires short individual conference). Before defining your topic, be sure that you have read Rampolla, Chapter 4; before finalizing your reading list, be sure to read Rampolla, chapter 2, section B-2.  You may also find Appendix B helpful.  DEADLINE EXTENDED TO NEXT WEEK


Week VI:  Late 19th Century Historiography

Readings: Breisach, chapters 18-21 (pp. 272-322)

DUE:  Library Assignment Part B 3 and B 4

Option--Early Completion of Definition of Research Questions (requires short individual conference).


Week VII:  Historiography in the 20th Century I

Readings:  Breisach, chapters 22-25 (pp. 323-361)

DUE:  Library Assignment Part B 5 and B 6

Option--Early Completion of Definition of Research Questions (requires short individual conference)

Be sure that you read Rampolla, chapter 3, section B-1 (on writing précis papers)


Week VIII:  Historiography in the 20th Century II

Readings:  Breisach, chapter 26-Epilogue (pp. 362-410)

DUE:  In class précis on chapter from Breisach (chosen by lottery)

Be sure that you read Rampolla, chapter 3, sectionB-1 (on writing précis papers)

Option--Early Completion of Definition of Research Questions (requires short individual conference)


Week IX:  Defining and Critiquing "Heroic Science" 

Readings:  Appleby, introduction-chapter 4 (pp. 1-159)

Deadline for Definition of Research Questions (requires short individual conference) is Monday.

Option--Early Approval of Primary Source Locator Assignment (short individual conference). Be sure that you read Rampolla, chapter 2, section B-1 (on primary sources).  You may also find Appendix B helpful.

Be sure that you read Rampolla, chapter 3, sectionB-1 (on writing précis papers)


Week X:  New Models of Truth

Appleby, chapters 5-8 (pp. 160-309)

Due: Common readings précis 2 due on Friday.

Be sure that you read Rampolla, chapter 3, sectionB-1 (on writing précis papers)

Option--Early Approval of Primary Source Locator Assignment (short individual conference).  Be sure that you read Rampolla, chapter 2, section B-1 (on primary sources).  You may also find Appendix B helpful.


Week XI:  More on Using Libraries for Research and an Introduction to Archives


Week XIII:   No Class (Thanksgiving) 

Optional (but strongly encouraged) individual conference on historiography papers/project proposals    


Week XIV:   individual conferences  WE WILL MEET THIS SESSION

Optional (but strongly encouraged) individual conference on projects/historiography/project proposals  


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