Essay For First Aid

Abstract
The smart emergency first aid kit would be convenient and easy to use by a normal technical person. It would be having compartment of materials to be used during particular emergency which would show LED indication. Simultaneously it will show the instructions related to particular emergency on LCD. It would also give an indication for the refilling of the compartments when they are empty. It would also have an additional feature of pre-recorded instructions in local language useful for guiding the laymen handling the emergency case.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 What is a First Aid Kit?
Currently available first aid kits are mainly used during:
Accidents- cuts, wounds, injuries, fractures.
Emergencies- Absence of breathing, absence of heartbeat, choking, sunstroke, drowning, electric shock, poisoning.
It comprises of:
Band aids and elastic bandages
Gauze and Adhesive tape
Antiseptic wipes and cotton wool
Safety pins and Scissors
Calamine lotion
Clinical Thermometer
Analgesic Tablets
First Aid Book

Fig. 1(a) Ordinary First aid kits
Courtesy: Meditrain first aid kits

1.2 Aim & Objective of the Project
Developing an innovative Smart Emergency First Aid Kit to cater different medical emergencies. Following medical emergencies would be covered:
1. Bleeding
2. Heart attack
3. Broken Bone
4. Head Injury
5. Pregnancy
6. Unconscious not breathing
7. Unconscious breathing
8. CPR
9. Epilepsy
10. Dog Bites
11. Hyperthermia

1.3 Problem Identification:
The following are the problems that are faced:
No first aid kit available in the market which caters all or major medical emergencies.
Improperly assembled kits.
Inefficient interface between user and a kit.
No serial communication or software integration with kit.
No telemedicine integrated first aid kit.
No Innovative design to cater individualized industry specific kit.
Peripheral areas of the country having dispensaries are unable treat the patients effectively during emergencies.

Fig.1 (b) Currently available first aid kit.
Courtesy: Meditrain first aid kits

CHAPTER 2: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

2.1 Introduction:
The Smart Emergency First Aid Kit is the device containing a collection of materials useful for giving first aid to the person suffering from an emergency. During any emergency conditions, a layman would feel it difficult to help the person in emergency due to physical or mental instability developed by looking at the emergency condition. We have worked upon this condition and developed a novel kit where in a layman-ordinary person can help the person in emergency by following the predefined and simplified steps. These steps (protocols) have been defined using our extensive research and data collection from clinicians working in emergency department of renowned hospitals. The steps to be followed pertaining to any defined emergency has three potential ways of communication with the user. First, once the switch pertaining to predefined emergency is pressed, the materials required for the emergency gives LED indication in the compartments. This helps the user to easily identify the materials required for particular emergency. Second, the predefined steps which needs to be followed pertaining to particular emergency has a visual display in the form instructions. Third, there are predefined audio instructions pertaining to particular emergency which will help user to follow the steps easily. The kit is a well-organized and comprises of compartments for arranging the materials according to the emergencies. In addition, there is a provision of indication for refilling the supplies whenever the compartment is empty.

2.2 Layout of the kit:

Fig.2 (a) Layout of the smart First Aid Kit

2.3 Description of the kit:
1. Push Buttons:
Push buttons are provided to select a particular type of emergency.
There are total 10 push buttons.
One push button is assigned to one emergency condition in following manner:
1.1 Bleeding.
1.2 Heart attack
1.3 Broken Bone
1.4 Head Injury
1.5 Pregnancy
1.6 Unconscious not breathing
1.7 Unconscious breathing
1.8 CPR
1.9 Epilepsy
1.10 Dog Bites
1.11 Hyperthermia

2. LCD Display:
LCD display will show the instructions related to particular emergency when it is selected
3. Indicators:
There are LED indicators provided which will glow when a particular material is required during the specific emergency.
Example: If 1 button is pushed then for bleeding as the required materials are cotton and sterile piece of cloth and bandage then the compartments having these materials will be indicated by their respective LEDs.
4. Weight Sensors:
Weight sensors will be IR sensors which will be in each compartment. This will show that the particular compartment is empty or is filled. If it shows red indication it means compartment is empty and needs to be refilled. If it shows green indication it means that the compartment is not empty.

5. Instructions to be displayed:

5.1 Bleeding

Remove dirt.
Stop Bleeding.
Immobilize the injured part.
Don’t remove the bandage.
LED: 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.

5.2 Heart attack

Call 108.
Chew and swallow an aspirin.
Begin CPR if unconscious.
LED:5, 9, 12.

5.3 Broken bone

Stop bleeding.
Immobilize the injured part.
Apply icepacks.
Don’t move the injured part.
LED: 3, 8, 9, 10, 12.

5.4 Head injury

Keep the person still.
Stop any bleeding.
Watch for breathing.
If not give CPR.
LED:2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.

5.5 Pregnancy

Stop bleeding using sanitary pads.
Call 108.
LED:9, 12, 13.

5.6 Unconscious not breathing

Check breathing.
If not give CPR.
Loosen clothes.
Lay down on the back.
LED: 9, 12.

5.7 Unconscious breathing

Check breathing.
Give CPR if irregular breathing.
Keep the person warm.
Give sugar to avoid faint.
LED: 9, 12.

5.8 CPR

Lay on the back.
Place other hand on the first hand.
Give 100 compressions per minute.

5.9 Epilepsy

Loosen clothes.
Don’t open mouth.
Remove sharp objects.
Soft thing under head.
LED: 9, 12.

5.10 Dog bite

Wash thoroughly.
Use soap.
Hospital within 24 hrs.
LED: 6, 9, 12.

5.11 Hyperthermia

Cooling pads on head.
Hospital within 1 hr.
LED:1, 4, 9, 12.

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Block Diagram

Fig.3 (a) Block diagram

3.2 COMPONENTS
1) ATmega 2560 R3:
The Arduino Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which15 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Mega is compatible with most shields designed for the Arduino Duemilanove or Diecimila.
2) Weight Sensors: IR sensors
Infrared sensors are the sensor which helps to detect whether a particular object is present or not. These will be present in each compartment for the purpose of refilling the materials.

3) LCD Display:
20*4 LCD display for the display of the instructions related to the particular emergency. It is 20 character 4 line displays.

4) LED Indicators:
LEDs to indicate particular material to be used during the particular type of an emergency. Also it will indicate that a particular material is present or not.
5) Database:
Database includes the information regarding each emergency and instructions to be displayed on the LCD screen . These instructions will be fed in the controller.
6) Micro SD Memory Card Socket:
The memory card socket is used to store the instruction in the different languages if the person is unable to read the instructions displayed on the LCD screen.


3.3 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION:
a) ATmega 2560 R3:
Description:
The Arduino Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 15 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Mega is compatible with most shields designed for the Arduino Duemilanove or Diecimila.
The Mega 2560 is an update to the Arduino Mega which it replaces.
The Mega2560 differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features the ATmega16U2 (ATmega8U2 in the revision 1 and revision 2 boards) programmed as a USB-to-serial converter.
Revision 2 of the Mega2560 board has a resistor pulling the 8U2 HWB line to ground, making it easier to put into DFU mode
Revision 3 of the board has the following new features:

1.0 pin out:
Added SDA and SCL pins that are near to the AREF pin and two other new pins placed near to the RESET pin, the IOREF that allow the shields to adapt to the voltage provided from the board. In future, shields will be compatible both with the board that use the AVR, which operate with 5V and with the Arduino Due that operate with 3.3V. The second one is a not connected pin that is reserved for future purposes.

Stronger RESET circuit.
Atmega 16U2 replace the 8U2.
Schematic, Reference Design & Pin Mapping

Summary
Microcontroller ATmega2560
Operating Voltage 5V
Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V
Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V
Digital I/O Pins 54 (of which 15 provide PWM output)
Analog Input Pins 16
DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA
DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA
Flash Memory 256 KB of which 8 KB used by boot loader
SRAM 8 KB
EEPROM 4 KB
Clock Speed 16 MHz

Power
The Arduino Mega can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply. The power source is selected automatically.
External (non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into the board’s power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector.
The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may be unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts.

The power pins are as follows:

VIN.
The input voltage to the Arduino board when it’s using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin.

5V.
This pin outputs a regulated 5V from the regulator on the board. The board can be supplied with power either from the DC power jack (7 – 12V), the USB connector (5V), or the VIN pin of the board (7-12V). Supplying voltage via the 5V or 3.3V pins bypasses the regulator, and can damage your board. We don’t advise it.

3V3.
A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. Maximum current draw is 50 mA.

GND.
Ground pins.

IOREF.
This pin on the Arduino board provides the voltage reference with which the microcontroller operates. A properly configured shield can read the IOREF pin voltage and select the appropriate power source or enable voltage translators on the outputs for working with the 5V or 3.3V.

Memory:
The ATmega2560 has 256 KB of flash memory for storing code (of which 8 KB is used for the boot loader), 8 KB of SRAM and 4 KB of EEPROM (which can be read and written with the EEPROM library)

Input and Output:
Each of the 54 digital pins on the Mega can be used as an input or output, using pin Mode(), digitalWrite() and digitalRead() functions. They operate at 5 volts. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. In addition, some pins have specialized

Functions:
Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX); Serial 1: 19 (RX) and 18 (TX); Serial 2: 17 (RX) and 16 (TX); Serial 3: 15 (RX) and 14 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. Pins 0 and 1 are also connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega16U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip.

External Interrupts:
2 (interrupt 0), 3 (interrupt 1), 18 (interrupt 5), 19 (interrupt 4), 20 (interrupt 3), and 21 (interrupt 2). These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value. These pins support SPI communication using the SPI library. The SPI pins are also broken out on the ICSP header, which is physically compatible with the Uno, Duemilanove and Diecimila.

LED:
13. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it’s off.

TWI:
20 (SDA) and 21 (SCL). Support TWI communication using the Wire library. Note that these pins are not in the same location as the TWI pins on the Duemilanove or Diecimila. The Mega2560 has 16 analog inputs, each of which provides 10 bits of resolution (i.e. 1024 different values). By default they measure from ground to 5 volts, though is it possible to change the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and analog Reference() function.
There are a couple of other pins on the board: AREF. Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Used with analog Reference().

Reset:
Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Typically used to add a reset button to shields which block the one on the board.

Communication:
The Arduino Mega2560 has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer, another Arduino, or other microcontrollers.
The ATmega2560 provides four hardware UARTs for TTL (5V) serial communication. An ATmega16U2 (ATmega 8U2 on the revision 1 and revision 2 boards) on the board channels one of these over USB and provides a virtual com port to software on the computer (Windows machines will need a .inf file, but OSX and Linux machines will recognize the board as a COM port automatically. The Arduino software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the board. The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being transmitted via the ATmega8U2/ATmega16U2 chip and USB connection to the computer (but not for serial communication on pins 0 and 1).A SoftwareSerial library allows for serial communication on any of the

Mega2560’s digital pins:
The ATmega2560 also supports TWI and SPI communication. The Arduino software includes a Wire library to simplify use of the TWI bus; see the documentation (http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/Wire) for details. For SPI communication, use the SPI library.

Programming
The Arduino Mega can be programmed with the Arduino software .
The ATmega16U2 (or 8U2 in the rev1 and rev2 boards) firmware source code is available in the Arduino repository. The ATmega16U2/8U2 is loaded with a DFU bootloader, which can be activated by:
On Rev1 boards: connecting the solder jumper on the back of the board (near the map of Italy) and then resetting the 8U2.
On Rev2 or later boards: there is a resistor that pulling the 8U2/16U2 HWB line to ground, making it easier to put into DFU mode. You can then use
Atmel’s FLIP software to load a new firmware. Or you can use the ISP header with an external programmer

Automatic (Software) Reset
Rather then requiring a physical press of the reset button before an upload, the Arduino Mega2560 is designed in a way that allows it to be reset by software running on a connected computer. One of the hardware flow control lines (DTR) of the ATmega8U2 is
connected to the reset line of the ATmega2560 via a 100 nanofarad capacitor. When this line is asserted (taken low), the reset line drops long enough to reset the chip. The Arduino software uses this capability to allow you to upload code by simply pressing the upload button in the Arduino environment. This means that the bootloader can have a shorter timeout, as the lowering of DTR can be well-coordinated with the start of the upload.
This setup has other implications. When the Mega2560 is connected to either a computer running Mac OS X or Linux, it resets each time a connection is made to it from software (via USB). For the following half-second or so, the bootloader is running on the Mega2560. While it is programmed to ignore malformed data (i.e. anything besides an upload of new code), it will intercept the first few bytes of data sent to the board after a connection is opened. If a sketch running on the board receives one-time configuration or other data when it first starts, make sure that the software with which it communicates waits a second after opening the connection and before sending this data.
The Mega2560 contains a trace that can be cut to disable the auto-reset. The pads on either side of the trace can be soldered together to re-enable it. It’s labeled “RESET-EN”. You may also be able to disable the auto-reset by connecting a 110 ohm resistor from 5V to the reset line.

USB Overcurrent Protection:
The Arduino Mega2560 has a resettable polyfuse that protects your computer’s USB ports from shorts and overcurrent. Although most computers provide their own internal protection, the fuse provides an extra layer of protection. If more than 500 mA is applied to the USB port, the fuse will automatically break the connection until the short or overload is removed.

Physical Characteristics and Shield Compatibility
The maximum length and width of the Mega2560 PCB are 4 and 2.1 inches respectively, with the USB connector and power jack extending beyond the former dimension. Three screw holes allow the board to be attached to a surface or case. Note that the distance between digital pins 7 and 8 is 160 mil (0.16″), not an even multiple of the 100 mil spacing of the other pins.

Share
The Mega2560 is designed to be compatible with most shields designed for the Uno, Diecimila or Duemilanove. Digital pins 0 to 13 (and the adjacent AREF and GND pins), analog inputs 0 to 5, the power header, and ICSP header are all in equivalent locations.
Further the main UART (serial port) is located on the same pins (0 and 1), as are external interrupts 0 and 1 (pins 2 and 3 respectively). SPI is available through the ICSP header on both the Mega2560 and Duemilanove / Diecimila. Please note that I2C is not located on the same pins on the Mega (20 and 21) as the Duemilanove / Diecimila (analog inputs 4 and 5).

Fig. 3(b) Arduino mega 2560 R3 board.

Courtesy: adafruit.com

Fig. 3(c) Arduino mega 2560 R3 Schematic

Courtesy: adafruit.com

b) 20*4 LCD:
DISPLAY CONTENT’20 CHAR x 4ROW
Pin Configuration:
1-VSS
2-VCC
3-VEE
4-RS
5-R/W
6-E
7-DB0
8-DB1
9-DB2
10-DB3
11-DB4
12-DB5
13-DB6
14-DB7
15-LED+
16-LED-

Fig. 3(d) LCD 20×4
c) IR proximity sensor:

Fig. 3(e) IR sensor

Courtesy: ebay.com

Description:
IR proximity sensor module has 3 pins. One pin is VCC, one pin is Ground and one pin is Negative. By connecting it to LED and resistor we can obtain the interfacing with LED which is used for LED indication.

d) Micro SD memory card and socket.
Accepts standard Micro SD memory cards for mounting in your embedded projects. These are the same sockets we use in our Micro SD memory card interface boards model 1102 and 1103 and they work great. The Micro SD memory cards are the same memory cards used in mobile phones which are available at very low cost, making it ideal for using in embedded projects like memory card storage, audio mp3 players and such.
The socket is Push Push type, means
‘ Push to Insert
‘ Push again to Eject

Fig. 3(f) Micro SD memory card and socket.

CHAPTER 4: SOFTWARE PROGRAMMING
4.1) Programming:
#include

#define SD_ChipSelectPin 53 //example uses hardware SS pin 53 on Mega2560

const byte ROWS = 4; //four rows
const byte COLS = 3; //four columns
//define the cymbols on the buttons of the keypads
char hexaKeys[ROWS][COLS] = {
{‘1’, ‘2’, ‘3’},
{‘4’, ‘5’, ‘6’},
{‘7’, ‘8’, ‘9’},
{‘*’, ‘0’, ‘#’}
};
byte rowPins[ROWS] = {A11, A12, A13, A14}; //connect to the row pinouts of the keypad
byte colPins[COLS] = {A10, A9, A8}; //connect to the column pinouts of the keypad

//initialize an instance of class NewKeypad
Keypad customKeypad = Keypad( makeKeymap(hexaKeys), rowPins, colPins, ROWS, COLS);

// initialize the library with the numbers of the interface pins
LiquidCrystal lcd(14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19);

TMRpcm tmrpcm; // create an object for use in this sketch

void setup() {
// set up the LCD’s number of columns and rows:
lcd.begin(20, 4);
// Print a message to the LCD.
//lcd.print(“hello, world!”);
Serial.begin(9600);

tmrpcm.speakerPin = 11; //5,6,11 or 46 on Mega, 9 on Uno, Nano, etc
pinMode(53,OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(53,HIGH);
if (!SD.begin(SD_ChipSelectPin)) { // see if the card is present and can be initialized:
Serial.println(“SD fail”);
return; // don’t do anything more if not
}
}

char flag = 0;
void loop() {
char customKey = customKeypad.getKey();

switch (customKey)
{
case ‘1’:
lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“Stop Bleeding&Remove”);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” Dirt, Immobilize “);
lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(” injured part… “);
lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“Don’t remove bandage”);
tmrpcm.play(“1.wav”);
led1(0,1,0,0);
led2(0,1,1,1);
led3(1,1,1,1,0);
break;

case ‘2’:
lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Call 108 “);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” Begin CPR “);
lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“Chew and swallow an “);
lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(” aspirin “);
tmrpcm.play(“2.wav”);
led1(0,0,0,0);
led2(1,0,0,0);
led3(1,0,0,1,0);
break;

case ‘3’:
lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“Stop bleeding& Apply”);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(“ice packs,Immobilize”);
lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“injured part & Don’t”);
lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“move injured part…”);
tmrpcm.play(“3.wav”);
led1(0,0,1,0);
led2(0,0,0,1);
led3(1,1,0,1,0);
break;

case ‘4’:
lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Keep person still “);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” Stop any bleeding “);
lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“Watch for breathing “);
lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(” If not give CPR…”);
tmrpcm.play(“4.wav”);
led1(0,1,0,0);
led2(0,0,0,1);
led3(1,1,0,1,0);
break;

case ‘5’:
lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“Stop bleeding using “);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” sanitary pad, “);
lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(” Call 108 “);
lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(” “);
tmrpcm.play(“5.wav”);
led1(0,0,0,0);
led2(0,0,0,0);
led3(1,0,0,1,1);
break;

case ‘6’:
lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Check Breathing, “);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” If not give CPR, “);
lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(” Loosen Clothes, “);
lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“Lay down on the back”);
tmrpcm.play(“6.wav”);
led1(0,0,0,0);
led2(0,0,0,0);
led3(1,0,0,1,0);
break;

case ‘7’:
lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“Check breathing,Give”);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” CPR if irregular “);
lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“Breathing,Give suger”);
lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(” to avoid faint… “);
tmrpcm.play(“7.wav”);
led1(0,0,0,0);
led2(0,0,0,0);
led3(1,0,0,1,0);
break;

case ‘8’:
lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Lay on the back, “);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(“place other hand on “);
lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“first hand&Give 100 “);
lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“compressions/minute.”);
tmrpcm.play(“8.wav”);
led1(0,0,0,0);
led2(0,0,0,0);
led3(0,0,0,0,0);
break;

case ‘9’:
lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“Loosen clothes,Don’t”);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(“open mouth,Remove “);
lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“sharp objects,Soft “);
lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“thing under head. “);
tmrpcm.play(“9.wav”);
led1(0,0,0,0);
led2(0,0,0,0);
led3(1,0,0,1,0);
break;

case ‘*’:
lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Using soap, wash “);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” throughly bitten “);
lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(” area & Hospital “);
lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(” within 24 hours…”);
tmrpcm.play(“10.wav”);
led1(0,0,0,0);
led2(0,1,0,0);
led3(0,0,0,1,0);
break;

case ‘0’:
lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“Cooling pads on head”);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(“Hospital within 1 hr”);
lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(” “);
lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(” “);
tmrpcm.play(“0.wav”);
led1(1,0,0,1);
led2(0,0,0,0);
led3(1,0,0,1,0);
break;

case ‘#’:
flag++;
lcd.begin(20,4);
if(flag>=3)
{
flag=0;
}
if(flag==0)
{
lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“1.Bleeding”);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(“2.Heart attack”);
lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“3.Broken Bone”);
lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“4.Head injury”);
}
else if(flag==1)
{
lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“5.Pregnancy”);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(“6&7.Unconcious not”);
lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“breathing&breathing”);
lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“8.CPR”);
}
else if(flag==2)
{
lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“9.Epilapsy”);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(“*.Dog bite”);
lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“0.Hyperthermia”);
lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“#.Information”);
}
break;

}

delay(100);
}

void led1(int i,int j,int k,int l){
digitalWrite(2,i);
digitalWrite(3,j);
digitalWrite(4,k);
digitalWrite(5,l);
}
void led2(int i,int j,int k,int l){
digitalWrite(6,i);
digitalWrite(7,j);
digitalWrite(8,k);
digitalWrite(9,l);
}
void led3(int i,int j,int k,int l,int m){
digitalWrite(10,i);
digitalWrite(12,j);
digitalWrite(13,k);
digitalWrite(21,l);
digitalWrite(22,m);
}

CHAPTER 5: LITERATURE REVIEW
PATENTS
5.1 AIM: First aid kit and method of replenishing
US 5931304 A
June 1998
David Hammond
Description:
Includes a carrying case which has means for providing quick access to the contents carried by the case.
Each pack being designated a colour, each pack being designated by an icon, and each pack containing medical products for different types of first aid situations.
Guidebook which have a matching colour to the pack.
The first aid kit further including an overview card which includes an overview of the packs, the overview card being color coordinated to assist the user in finding the appropriate pack for a situation, the overview card further being icon coordinated to assist the user in finding the appropriate pack for a situation.

Fig. 5(a) First aid kit and method of replenishing.

5.2 AIM: First-aid kit
US 2324194 A
July 1943
Clementine Campiglia
Description:
Body attached first aid kit.
Specially designed for battle field.
Pockets designed according to the equipments
flap adapted to overlie the upper open edge over the false one preventing the materials from rain.
Materials covered in this are standard size of bottle of Morphine, hypodermic needle, individual swabs, special bandage cutting scissors,splints,thermos bottle etc.
Invention is to provide a body-attached first aid kit for use in emergency field work, which kit does not hinder the movement of the wearer and is adapted to be opened from the carried position with all pockets and equipment items in the proper position for use while the wearer is administering first aid to the patient.

Fig. 5(b) First aid kit during military services.

5.3 AIM: Emergency burn treatment pack

US 3986505 A
October 19,1975
Ronald Power
Description:
Comprises of soft resilient foam material adapted to support a patient lying on said foam material,
A sterile sheet on said foam material interspersed between said foam material and a patient lying on said foam material and adapted to completely cover and protect said patient from contamination, and
a flexible outer covering having at least a pair of cooperating interlocking portions completely encompassing said foam material, patient and said sterile sheet for maintaining the sterile atmosphere about the patient.
Required to check the pulse and breathing issue.
Openings are provided in the waterproof covering to provide access to the patient’s arms and legs for intravenous blood transfusions should that be necessary. A pair of flexible straps located on each side of the waterproof outer covering provide the means for transporting the patient while in the sterile and moist protective cocoon environment.

Fig. 5(c) Emergency burn treatment pack.

5.4 AIM: Emergency medical care kit with medical emergency instructions

US 5848700 A
Dec 15,1998
Nathaneil Horn
Description:
Can be used by a laymen.
Plastic organizer to insert the compartments.
Each compartment for a particular medical emergency.
A compartment for instruction and emergency telephone numbers.
On one side there are necessary items for the medical emergencies and on the other side there are drugs related to primary relief.
Each compartment is directed to a particular medical emergency and is so identified on its cover or lid. The reverse side of the compartment cover has instructions for treating the particular emergency, while the compartment contains the necessary care items for that particular emergency. A divider is held by snaps across the upper section of the case to help contain the contents and also provides instruction for use of the kit, some general first aid information, and a list of emergency telephone numbers.

Fig. 5(d) Medical organised care kit with instructions.

5.5 AIM: Emergency eye kit

US 6116426 A
September 2000
Charles Solenim
Description:
Comprises of sterilized pads(2’*2′), drugs, extractors, lights, ointments, tape ,spray kind of flush systems etc.An emergency medical kit having a container with a hinged lid and a latch for use in organizing and protecting ophthalmic instruments and supplies, such as sterilized pads, drugs, extractors, lights, ointments, tape and other items needed by a physician or emergency personnel working under the auspices of aphysician in rendering emergency medical assistance to a person suffering an eye injury. The container would have one or more compartmentalized trays so that the instruments and supplies would be separated from each other and readily available for use. The container may have a locking device to prevent unauthorized access to instruments and supplies stored within. The container would be lightweight and compact, so that it is readily portable and easily stored. It is contemplated for the present invention to be used in any location where a physician or emergency personnel is called upon to diagnose and treat someone who has suffered an eye injury, including, but not limited to, medical offices of non-ophthalmic physicians, accident sites, shopping malls, residences, sporting events, and camping facilities.

Fig. 5(e) Emergency eye kit.

5.6 AIM: Emergency relief system
US 6957738 B2
OCT 25,2005
David Hmmond
Description:
System comprises of packs of guidebooks of the first aid for the medical emergencies which gives the idea about the instructions on how to use the products given in the pack during a particular medical emergency.
The guide book is color and icon coordinated to assist the person to quickly find the respective emergency pack.
It also contains an instruction guide in the video /audio format.
Also there is a functional intelligence which gives the columnar array accordance to the packs kept in the system which results in the accuracy of the treatment related to first aid.
Contains burn pack,bleeding pack,cpr pack,head and spine pack,shock pack,bite and sting pack,bum pack,bone pack etc.
The first aid kit further includes an overview card that is an overview of the components of the first aid kit, identifying each of the packs for quick reference in a first aid situation. Each of the packs contains medical products specifically selected for different types of first aid situations as well as an instructional card that gives quick reference instructions for administration of first aid in these situations.

Fig. 5(f) Emergency relief system

5.7 AIM: Portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit
CN 202909126 U, 2013
Description:
The utility model discloses a portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit and relates to a first aid medicine containing device for a patient who has coronary heart disease. The portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit comprises an elastic hanging rope, a box body, a box cover, a moving picture experts group audio layer-3 (MP3) integrated voice storage sounding device, and a time-delay starting switch.
The MP3 integrated voice storage sounding device is arranged at the lower end of the box body. The portable voice guidance coronary hear disease first aid kit is convenient to carry and quick in taking medicine, and enables the patient to take first aid medicines timely, quickly and accurately by self at coronary heart disease attacking time.
When the patient is incapable of self rescue, the portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit is capable of automatic voice alarm for help, provides the name, the address, illness conditions and first aid measures which can be taken, and therefore the purpose of first aid is achieved. The portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit is suitable for self rescue or being rescued at the coronary heart disease attacking time.

Fig. 5(g) Portable coronary heart disease first aid kit.

CHAPTER 6: FUTURE EXPANSION
Different kits based on the needs of the industries like hospitals, industries i.e. pharmaceuticals, drugs etc.
Application of Video conferencing.
Increasing the emergencies and similarly its compartments.
Making them more portable.
Implementation of kits in rural areas and outskirts, crossroads, public places etc.
Making it more portable, user friendly and more compatible.

REFERENCES
1. google.patents.com
2. http://www.sunrom.com
3. adafruit.com
4. ebay.com
5. Meditrain first aid kits

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First aid is the immediate care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly taken ill. It includes self-help and home care if medical assistance is not available or is delayed. It also includes well-selected words of encouragement, evidence of willingness to help, and promotion of confidence by demonstration of competence.

The person giving first aid, the first-alder, deals with the whole situation, the injured person, and the injury or illness. He knows what not to do as well as what to do; he avoids errors that are frequently made by untrained persons through well-meant but misguided efforts. He knows, too, that his first aid knowledge and skill can mean the difference between life and death, between temporary and permanent disability, and between rapid recovery and long hospitalization.

NEED FOR FIRST AID TRAINING

Statistics show that accidents are the leading cause of death among persons from 1 year old to 38 years old; thereafter, accidents are one of the leading causes. The annual cost of medical attention, the loss of earning ability due to temporary or permanent impairment, the direct property damage, and the insurance costs amount to many billions of dollars each year, not to mention the toll in pain, suffering, disability, and personal tragedy.

Added to the grim accident statistics is the fact that the pattern of medical care has changed. Individuals today require, and should demand, the best possible care. Equipment for diagnosis and treatment, which is needed to provide such care, is usually at a hospital. Moreover, the growing population and expanding health needs have not been balanced by a proportional increase in numbers of doctors, nurses, and allied health workers. It is not enough to say, "Call the doctor"; a doctor may not be available to come to the scene of the emergency.

VALUE OF FIRST AID TRAINING

First aid training is of value in both preventing and treating sudden illness or accidental injury and in caring for large numbers of persons caught in a natural disaster.

Self-Help

If you, as a first-aider, are prepared to help others, you are better able to care for yourself in case of injury or sudden illness. Even if your own condition keeps you from caring for yourself, you can direct others in carrying out correct procedures to follow in your behalf.

Help for Others

Having studied first aid, you are prepared to give others some instruction in first aid, to promote among them a reasonable safety attitude, and to assist them wisely if they are stricken. There is always an obligation on a humanitarian basis to assist the stricken and the helpless. There is no greater satisfaction than that resulting from relieving suffering or saving a life.

Preparation for Disaster

First aid training is of particular importance in case of catastrophe, when medical and hospital services are limited or delayed. Catastrophe may take the form of a hurricane, a flood, an earth-quake, a tornado, an explosion, or a fire. It may also take the form of a single accidental death or a life-threatening illness. Knowing what to do in an emergency helps to avoid the panic and disorganized behavior that are characteristic of unprepared persons at such times. Knowledge of first aid is a civic responsibility. It not only helps to save lives and prevent complications from injuries but also helps in setting up an orderly method of handling emergency problems ac-cording to their priority for treatment, so that the greatest possible good may be accomplished for the greatest number of people.

Safety Awareness

First aid training not only provides you with knowledge and skill to give life support and other emergency care but also helps you to develop safety awareness and habits that promote safety at home, at work, during recreation, and on the streets and highways. In the promotion of safety awareness, it is important to closely relate three terms: cause, effect, and prevention.

Cause

As various types of injury and illness are studied, initially only the more likely causes are identified, mainly because of the diversity of circumstances that are present in most accident situations. Aside from the more likely and obvious causative conditions, there are related human and mechanical factors to consider, as well as factors beyond the control of man.

A primary consideration in determining the root cause of an accident is human failure: an act of thoughtless, careless, or unwise behavior. Human failure may involve an act of doing something�or perhaps not doing something. It can create danger to oneself as well as to others. A person may wantonly disobey some regulation or law that has been established for safety. People often fail to heed warnings and follow directions. Instruction in the safe use of an object or in safe conduct may be inadequate; supervision during the learning process may be ignored. Human failure can also involve such mental or physical conditions as fatigue, inattention, impatience, and structural or functional handicaps of the body.

The possibility of mechanical malfunctions or structural failures as contributing causes of accidents also requires consideration. Faulty design or engineering may create a built-in hidden hazard. Manufacturing or construction procedures could lack the quality control necessary to ensure safe performance or use. The raw material may contain some inordinate defect.

When the in-depth study of an actual or hypothetical accident situation identifies all the causative factors, it becomes possible to determine what can be done to eliminate, control, or avoid the hazards.

Effect

The immediate effects of an injury or sudden illness consist of changes in the body's structure and functions. These effects are dealt with in the material on first aid care, particularly in discussions of signs and symptoms. However, long-range�possibly permanent�effects are also involved in many situations. Permanent disability can make it difficult for a person to enjoy a fully active and productive life. The economic and social structure of the family unit is frequently disrupted. In an accident, mental anguish brought on by knowing that one may have contributed to another's death or disability can linger on through a lifetime.

When analysis carefully considers both immediate and long-range or permanent effects of injury or sudden illness, it becomes obvious why every possible effort should be taken to eliminate, control, or avoid a situation that is hazardous to oneself or to others.

Prevention

A better understanding of the overall accident problem is developed if all the circumstances surrounding various types of accidents are carefully studied, including the broad range of first aid care that may be required. With such understanding, a person is likely to think and act more carefully, thoughtfully, and wisely. He tends to become more concerned for his own personal safety, as well as for that of others. He is likely to become genuinely interested in creating a safer environment on the highway, in the home, at work, in school, and at play. He will have a more responsible attitude toward accident prevention.

The causes of an accident indicate what accident-producing conditions and activities require attention. Accident effects indicate why such conditions and activities deserve concerted attention. Preventive measures should include a consideration of how these conditions and activities can be eliminated, controlled, or avoided.

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR FIRST AID

As a first-aider, you may encounter a variety of problem situations. Your decisions and actions will vary according to the circumstances that produced the accident or sudden illness, the number of persons involved, the immediate environment, and the availability of medical assistance, emergency dressings and equipment, and help from others. You will need to adapt what you have learned to the situation at hand or will need to improvise.

Sometimes, prompt action is needed to save a life. At other times, there is no need for haste. Efforts in the latter case will be directed toward preventing further injury, obtaining assistance, and reassuring the victim, who may be emotionally upset and apprehensive, as well as in pain.

First aid begins with action, which in itself has a calming effect. If there are multiple injuries or if several persons are hurt, priorities must be set. If you are the first-aider in charge you should enlist the help of bystanders to make telephone calls, to direct traffic, to keep others at a distance if necessary, to position safety flares in case of highway accidents, and so on. You should provide life support to victims with life-threatening injuries, attending first to those suffering from stoppage of breathing and then to those with severe hemorrhaging. You can then turn to those with less critical injuries.

Telephone or have someone else telephone the appropriate authorities regarding the accident. The police department or the high-way patrol is a good first contact, but the circumstances surrounding the accident should be a guide as to whom to call. You should always have a list of emergency telephone numbers available. If the numbers are not readily available, ask the operator for assistance. Describe the problem, indicate what is being done, and ask for whatever help you think is needed, such as an ambulance, the fire department, the rescue squad, or utility company personnel. Give your name, the location of the accident, the number of persons involved, and the telephone number where you can be reached. Do not hang up the receiver until after the other party hangs up, because he may wish to clarify some information.

Urgent Care

In case of serious injury or sudden illness, and while help is being summoned, you must immediately�

  • Determine the best way of rescue (for example, removal of an accident victim from water, from a fire, or from a garage or room containing carbon monoxide or smoke).
  • Ensure that the victim has an open airway and give mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose artificial respiration if it is necessary.
  • Control severe bleeding.
  • Give first aid for poisoning or ingestion of harmful chemicals.

Specific emergencies that require immediate first aid will be discussed in the appropriate chapters in the text.

Additional First Aid Directions

Unless it is necessary for safety to move a victim at once, keep him in the position best suited to his condition or injuries. Do not let him get up or walk around. Protect him from aggravation of existing injuries. If blankets or covers are available, keep him warm enough to overcome or avoid chilling. If he is exposed to cold or dampness, place blankets or additional clothing over and under him.

If haste is not imperative, or after immediate problems are under control, survey the situation and try to find out exactly what happened. The direction and extent of the examination should be determined by the kind of accident or sudden illness and the needs of the situation. Have a reason for what you do. Information may be obtained from the victim or from persons who were present and saw the accident or the onset of illness. If the victim is unconscious and has no sign of external injury, try to obtain identification either from papers carried in the victim's billfold or purse or from bystanders, so that relatives may be notified. (It is advisable to have a witness when you are looking for identification.)

Many people with chronic illness, such as heart disease, may carry medication with them, to be taken in the event of sudden illness; or they may have emergency medical identification, such as a card or bracelet, that gives a clue to their condition.

Examine the victim methodically. Loosen constricting clothing but do not pull on the victim's belt, in case spinal injuries are present. Remove or open clothing as necessary to examine the victim and give first aid (clothing may be cut away or ripped at the seams) but do not expose the victim unduly without protective cover. (Discretion must always be used in removing clothing.) Note the general appearance (including discoloration) of the victim's skin and other signs and symptoms that may give a clue to the injury or sudden illness. In the case of a victim with dark skin pigmentation, it may be difficult to interpret changes in skin color; look for changes in the color of the mucous membrane, which is the inner surface of the lips, mouth, and eyelids. Use all other available information concerning signs and symptoms, the history of the accident, and the like.

Check the victim's pulse; if you cannot feel it in the wrist, check for a pulse of the carotid artery at the side of his neck. Is the victim awake, stuporous, or unconscious? Does he respond to questions? Look at the expression of his eyes and the size of his pupils. Examine his trunk and limbs for open and closed wounds and for signs of fractures.

If the victim is unconscious, look for evidence of head injury. If he is conscious, look for paralysis of one side of his face or body. See whether he shows evidence of a recent convulsion. (He may have bitten his tongue, producing a laceration.) Check the front of the victim's neck to determine whether he is a laryngectomee. (Most laryngectomees carry a card or other identification stating that they cannot breathe through nose or mouth.) Do not inadvertently block the stoma of a laryngectomee when carrying out other first aid, because blockage could cause death from asphyxiation.

If poisoning is suspected, check for stains or burns about the victim's mouth and a source of poisoning nearby, such as pills, medicine bottles, household chemicals, or pesticides.

Apply emergency dressings, bandages, and splints as necessary, if they are available.

Decide whether it is absolutely necessary to move the victim before help arrives.

After you determine the nature of the victim's injuries or illness, your plan of action will be affected by the kind of accident or sudden illness and the needs of the situation. Another major factor influencing this plan is the availability of human and material resources.

The first aid worker is not expected to explain the victim's probable condition to bystanders or to reporters. He is expected, however, to remain in charge until the victim can be placed in the care of qualified persons (for example, a physician, an ambulance crew, a rescue squad, or a police officer) or until the victim can take care of himself or can be placed in the care of relatives. Meanwhile, proper first aid measures should include standard specific techniques that have been taught and that, in view of the circumstances, appear to be necessary.

Above all, as a first aid worker, you should know the limits of your capabilities and must make every effort to avoid further injury to the victim in your attempt to provide the best possible emergency first aid care.






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