1. Weinstein A, Lejoyeux M. Internet addiction or excessive Internet use. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 2010 Aug;36(5 ):277–83.[PubMed]
2. Beard KW. Internet addiction: a review of current assessment techniques and potential assessment questions. CyberPsychology & Behavior. 2005 Feb;8(1 ):7–14.[PubMed]
3. Chou C, Condron L, Belland JC. A review of the research on Internet addiction. Educational Psychology Review. 2005 Dec;17(4 ):363–88.
4. Douglas AC, Mills JE, Niang M, Stepchenkova S, Byun S, Ruffini C, et al. Internet addiction: meta-synthesis of qualitative research for the decade 1996-2006. Computers in Human Behavior. 2008 Sep;24(6 ):3027–44.
5. Wolfling K, Buhler M, Lemenager T, Morsen C, Mann K. Gambling and internet addiction. Review and research agenda. Der Nervenarzt. 2009 Sep;80(9 ):1030–9.[PubMed]
6. Petersen KU, Weymann N, Schelb Y, Thiel R, Thomasius R. Pathological Internet use - epidemiology, diagnostics, co-occurring disorders and treatment. Fortschritte Der Neurologie Psychiatrie. [Review] 2009 May;77(5 ):263–71.[PubMed]
7. Peukert P, Sieslack S, Barth G, Batra A. Internet- and computer game addiction: Phenomenology, comorbidity, etiology, diagnostics and therapeutic implications for the addictives and their relatives. Psychiatrische Praxis. 2010 Jul;37(5 ):219–24.[PubMed]
8. Widyanto L, Griffiths MD. 'Internet addiction': a critical review. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 2006 Jan;4(1 ):31–51.
9. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th ed., text rev.) Washington, DC: 2000. Author.
10. Young KS. Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. 104th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association; August 11 1996; Toronto, Canada.
11. American Psychiatric Association. DSM-5 Publication Date Moved to May 2013. 2009 [cited 2011 August 21]; [Press release]. Available from: http: //www.psych.org/MainMenu/Newsroom/ NewsReleases/2009NewsReleases/DSM-5-Publication-Date- Moved-.aspx .
12. Block JJ. Issues for DSM-V: Internet addiction. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2008 Mar;165(3 ):306–7. [Editorial] [PubMed]
13. Pies R. Should DSM-V designate "Internet addiction" a mental disorder? Psychiatry. 2009 Feb;6(2 ):31–7.[PMC free article][PubMed]
14. O'Brien CP. Commentary on Tao et al. (2010): Internet addiction and DSM-V. Addiction. [Comment/Reply] 2010 Mar;105(3 ):565.
15. Czincz J, Hechanova R. Internet addiction: Debating the diagnosis. Journal of Technology in Human Services. 2009 Oct;27(4 ):257–72.
16. Young KS. Caught in the net: how to recognize the signs of Internet addiction and a winning strategy for recovery. New York: J. Wiley; 1998.
17. Young KS. Internet addiction: the emergence of a new clinical disorder. CyberPsychology & Behavior. 1998 Fal ;1(3 ):237–44.
18. Kratzer S, Hegerl U. Is "Internet Addiction" a disorder of its own? A study on subjects with excessive internet use. Psychiatrische Praxis. 2008 Mar;35(2 ):80–3.[PubMed]
19. Grant JE, Potenza MN, Weinstein A, Gorelick DA. Introduction to behavioral addictions. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 2010 Aug;36(5 ):233–41.[PMC free article][PubMed]
20. American Society of Addiction Medicine. Public Policy Statement: Definition of Addiction. 2011 [cited 2011 August 21]; http: //www.asam.org/1DEFINITION_OF_ ADDICTION_LONG_4-11.pdf. Public Policy Statement: Definition of Addiction. 2011 [cited 2011 Augus.
21. Davis RA. A cognitive behavioral model of pathological internet use (PIU) Computers in Human Behavior. 2001;17(2 ):187–95.
22. Dowling NA, Quirk KL. Screening for Internet dependence: Do the proposed diagnostic criteria differentiate normal from dependent Internet use? CyberPsychology & Behavior. 2009 Feb;12(1 ):21–7.[PubMed]
23. Caplan SE. Problematic Internet use and psychosocial well-being: development of a theory-based cognitive-behavioral measurement instrument. Computers in Human Behavior. 2002;18(5 ):553–75.
24. Winkler A, Dörsing B. Treatment of internet addiction disorder: a first meta-analysis [Diploma thesis] Marburg: University of Marburg; 2011.
25. Byun S, Ruffini C, Mills JE, Douglas AC, Niang M, Stepchenkova S, et al. Internet addiction: metasynthesis of 1996-2006 quantitative research. CyberPsychology & Behavior. 2009 Apr;12(2 ):203–7.[PubMed]
26. Demetrovics Z, Szeredi B, Rozsa S. The three-factor model of Internet addiction: the development of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire. Behavior Research Methods. 2008;40(2 ):563–74.[PubMed]
27. Meerkerk G, Van Den Eijnden R, Vermulst A, Garretsen H. The Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS): some psychometric properties. CyberPsychology & Behavior. 2009 Feb;12(1 ):1–6.[PubMed]
28. Chakraborty K, Basu D, Kumar K. Internet addiction: Consensus, controversies, and the way ahead. East Asian Archives of Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;20(3 ):123–32.[PubMed]
29. Young KS, Nabuco de Abreu C. Internet Addiction: A handbook and guide to evaluation and treatment. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 2011.
30. Young KS, Griffin-Shelley E, Cooper A, O'Mara J, Buchanan J. Online infidelity: A new dimension in couple relationships with implications for evaluation and treatment. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity. 2000;7(1-2 ):59–74.
31. Cooper A, Putnam DE, Planchon LA, Boies SC. Online sexual compulsivity: getting tangled in the net. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity. 1999;6(2 ):79–104.
32. Grohol JM. Internet addiction guide. Internet addiction guide. 1999 [updated 2005, April 16; cited 2011 April 20]; Available from: http: //psychcentral.com/ netaddiction/
33. Linden DJ. The Compass of Pleasure: How Our Brains Make Fatty Foods, Orgasm, Exercise, Marijuana, Generosity, Vodka, Learning, and Gambling Feel So Good. Viking Adult. 2011.
34. Gabor Maté MD. In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts: Close Encounters with Addiction. North Atlantic Books. 2010.
35. Bai Y-M, Lin C-C, Chen J-Y. Internet Addiction Disorder Among Clients of a Virtual Clinic. Psychiatric Services. 2001;52(10 ):1397. [Letter] [PubMed]
36. Ko C-H, Liu G-C, Hsiao S, Yen J-Y, Yang M-J, Lin W-C, et al. Brain activities associated with gaming urge of online gaming addiction. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2009;43(7 ):739–47.[PubMed]
37. Amichai-Hamburger Y, Ben-Artzi E. Loneliness and Internet use. Computers in Human Behavior. 2003;19(1 ):71–80.
38. Eisen S, Lin N, Lyons M, Scherrer J, Griffith K, True W, et al. Familial influences on gambling behavior: an analysis of 3359 twin pairs. Addiction. 1998 Sep;1998:1375–84.[PubMed]
39. Grant JE, Brewer JA, Potenza MN. The neurobiology of substance and behavioral addictions. CNS Spectrums. 2006. 2006 Dec;11(12 ):924–30.[PubMed]
40. Dong G, Lu Q, Zhou H, Zhao X. Precursor or sequela: pathological disorders in people with Internet addiction disorder. Public Library of Science One [serial on the Internet] 2011;6(2 ) Available from: http: //www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal. pone.0014703 . [PMC free article][PubMed]
41. Young KS. Internet Addiction: Symptoms, Evaluation, And Treatment. Innovations in Clinical Practice [serial on the Internet]. 1999;17 Available from: http: //treatmentcenters.com/downloads/ internet-addiction.pdf .
42. Arisoy O. Internet addiction and its treatment. Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar. 2009;1(1 ):55–67.
43. Atmaca M. A case of problematic Internet use successfully treated with an SSRI-antipsychotic combination. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. 2007 May;31(4 ):961–2. [Letter] [PubMed]
44. Huang X-q, Li M-c, Tao R. Treatment of Internet addiction. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2010 Oct ;12(5 ):462–70.[PubMed]
45. Sattar P, Ramaswamy S. Internet gaming addiction. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2004 Dec;49(12 ):871–2.
46. Wieland DM. Computer addiction: implications for nursing psychotherapy practice. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. 2005 Oct-Dec;41(4 ):153–61.[PubMed]
47. Dell'Osso B, Hadley S, Allen A, Baker B, Chaplin WF, Hollander E. Escitalopram in the treatment of impulsive-compulsive Internet usage disorder: an open-label trial followed by a double-blind discontinuation phase. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2008 Mar;69(3 ):452–6.[PubMed]
48. Han DH, Hwang JW, Renshaw PF. Bupropion sustained release treatment decreases craving for video games and cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2010 Aug;18(4 ):297–304.[PubMed]
49. Han DH, Lee YS, Na C, Ahn JY, Chung US, Daniels MA, et al. The effect of methylphenidate on Internet video game play in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2009 May-Jun;50(3 ):251–6.[PubMed]
50. Shapira NA, Goldsmith TD, Keck PE , Jr, Khosla UM, McElroy SL. Psychiatric features of individuals with problematic Internet use. Journal of affective disorders. 2000 Jan-Mar;57(1-3 ):267–72.[PubMed]
51. Bostwick JM, Bucci JA. Internet sex addiction treated with naltrexone. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2008;83(2 ):226–30.[PubMed]
52. Greenfield DN. Suchtfalle Internet. Hilfe fuer Cyberfreaks, Netheads und ihre Partner. Virtual addiction: Zuerich: Walter. 2000.
53. Lanjun Z. The applications of group mental therapy and sports exercise prescriptions in the intervention of Internet addiction disorder. Psychological Science (China) 2009 May;32(3 ):738–41.
54. Miller WR, Rollnick S. In: Motivational interviewing: preparing people for change. 2nd ed. Miller WR, Rollnick S, editors. New York: Guilford Press; 2002.
55. Miller NH. Motivational interviewing as a prelude to coaching in healthcare settings. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2010 May-Jun;25(3 ):247–51.[PubMed]
56. Burke BL, Arkowitz H, Menchola M. The efficacy of motivational interviewing: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology. 2003 Oct;71(5 ):843–61.[PubMed]
57. Meyers RJ, Miller WR, Smith JE. Community reinforcement and family training (CRAFT) In: Meyers RJ, Miller WR, editors. A community reinforcement approach to addiction treatment. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; US; 2001. pp. 147–60.
58. Kim J-U. A reality therapy group counseling program as an Internet addiction recovery method for college students in Korea. International Journal of Reality Therapy. 2007 Spr ;26(2 ):3–9.
59. Kim J-U. The effect of a R/T group counseling program on the Internet addiction level and self-esteem of Internet addiction university students. International Journal of Reality Therapy. 2008 Spr; 27(2 ):4–12.
60. Twohig MP, Crosby JM. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a treatment for problematic Internet pornography viewing. Behavior Therapy. 2010 Sep;41(3 ):285–95.[PubMed]
61. Abreu CN, Goes DS. Psychotherapy for Internet addiction. In: Young KS, de Abreu CN, editors. Internet addiction: A handbook and guide to evaluation and treatment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc; US; 2011. pp. 155–71.
62. Young KS. Cognitive behavior therapy with Internet addicts: treatment outcomes and implications. CyberPsychology & Behavior. 2007 Oct;10(5 ):671–9.[PubMed]
63. Cao F-L, Su L-Y, Gao X-P. Control study of group psychotherapy on middle school students with Internet overuse. Chinese Mental Health Journal. 2007 May;21(5 ):346–9.
64. Li G, Dai X-Y. Control study of cognitive-behavior therapy in adolescents with Internet addiction disorder. Chinese Mental Health Journal. 2009 Jul;23(7 ):457–70.
65. Zhu T-m, Jin R-j, Zhong X-m. Clinical effect of electroacupuncture combined with psychologic interference on patient with Internet addiction disorder. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional & Western Medicine. 2009 Mar;29(3 ):212–4.[PubMed]
66. Orzack MH, Orzack DS. Treatment of computer addicts with complex co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Cyberpsychology & Behavior. 1999;2(5 ):465–73.[PubMed]
67. Du Y-s, Jiang W, Vance A. Longer term effect of randomized, controlled group cognitive behavioural therapy for Internet addiction in adolescent students in Shanghai. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2010;44(2 ):129–34.[PubMed]
68. Fang-ru Y, Wei H. The effect of integrated psychosocial intervention on 52 adolescents with Internet addiction disorder. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2005 Aug;13(3 ):343–5.
69. Orzack MH, Voluse AC, Wolf D, Hennen J. An ongoing study of group treatment for men involved in problematic Internet-enabled sexual behavior. CyberPsychology & Behavior. 2006 Jun;9(3 ):348–60.[PubMed]
70. Rong Y, Zhi S, Yong Z. Comprehensive intervention on Internet addiction of middle school students. Chinese Mental Health Journal. 2006 Jul;19(7 ):457–9.
71. Shek DTL, Tang VMY, Lo CY. Evaluation of an Internet addiction treatment program for Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. Adolescence. 2009;44(174 ):359–73.[PubMed]
72. Bai Y, Fan FM. The effects of group counseling on Internet-dependent college students. Chinese Mental Health Journal. 2007;21(4 ):247–50.
73. reSTART: Internet Addiction Recovery Program. First detox center for Internet addicts opens its doors: Creates solutions for computer related addictive behaviors. 2009. [[cited 2011 August 21]]. Available from: http: //www.netaddictionrecovery.com .
74. Lambert MJ, Morton JJ, Hatfield D, Harmon C, Hamilton S, Reid RC, et al. Administration and Scoring Manual for the OQ-45.2 (Outcome Measures) American Professional Credentialing Services L.L.C. 2004.
The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between Internet Addiction (IA) and academic performance among foreign undergraduate students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). This study also identified the differences in internet addiction in terms of gender and country of original. Four countries were selected through simple random sampling; there were China, Yemen, Somalia and Indonesia. Then, a total of 120 students were selected randomly from those countries. In order to measure IA, Internet Addiction Test (IAT) based on Young's (1998) survey which modified by Pee and Shafeq (2009), was used. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS. The statistical techniques frequency and percentage were used to identify the patterns of using the Internet; t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to examine the differences in IA in terms of demographic factors. Pearson correlation technique was also used to determine the relationship between IA and academic performance. The results of the study showed that there were no significant differences in IA in terms of gender, country of origin. The results also indicated that there were no significant differences in IA in terms of CGPA. This suggests that future research need to work on large-scale using multiple-campus technology assessments.