The Rhetorical Précis: Explanations and Examples
In 1988, Margaret Woodworth reported on a reading/writing method that she called "the rhetorical précis," which significantly helped students at various levels, particularly in their reading comprehension and preparation for using source materials in their own academic writing. (A template can be found at the bottom of this page.)
A rhetorical précis has only four sentences, each of which has specific guidelines:
- The name of the author, the genre and title of the work, the date in parentheses (you may add additional publishing information in parentheses or a note, if you think it would be valuable, but it is usually not necessary), a rhetorically accurate verb (such as "asserts," "argues," "suggests," "implies," "claims," etc.), and a THAT clause containing the major assertion (thesis statement) of the work. Optional: an appositive (a phrase describing the author) following the author's name.
- An explanation of how the author develops and/or supports the thesis, usually in chronological order.
- A statement of the author’s apparent purpose, followed by an "in order" phrase.
- A description of the intended audience and/or the relationship the author establishes with the audience. (Establishing the tone of the piece can be helpful with this part; see the MacFarquhar example below and the Dionne example further down.)
Woodworth, Margaret K. "The Rhetorical Précis." Rhetoric Review 7 (1988): 156-64. Print.
In her article "Who Cares if Johnny Can't Read?" (1997), Larissa MacFarquhar asserts that Americans are reading more than ever despite claims to the contrary and that it is time to reconsider why we value reading so much, especially certain kinds of "high culture" reading. MacFarquhar supports her claims about American reading habits with facts and statistics that compare past and present reading practices, and she challenges common assumptions by raising questions about reading's intrinsic value. Her purpose is to dispel certain myths about reading in order to raise new and more important questions about the value of reading and other media in our culture. She seems to have a young, hip, somewhat irreverent audience in mind because her tone is sarcastic, and she suggests that the ideas she opposes are old-fashioned positions.
From Reading Rhetorically. by John C. Bean, Virginia A. Chappell, and Alice M. Gillam.
- This example follows Woodworth's pattern exactly. The first sentence identifies the author (Larissa MacFarquhar), the genre (article), the title and date, and uses an active verb (asserts) and the relative pronoun that to explain exactly what MacFarquhar asserts.
- The second sentence explains how the writer supports her assertions by stating, in chronological order, that MacFarquhar first presents facts and statistics and next challenges common assumptions by raising questions.
- The third sentence presents the author's purpose and why (in order to) she has set out that purpose (or seems to have set out that purpose--not all essays are explicit about this information, and readers have to put the pieces together).
- The final sentence identifies what appears to be the primary audience of the essay (college students) due to her tone.
Although précis are short, they are quite challenging. The benefits, as Woodworth points out in her article, are the following:
- After having used this method for a while, 76% of students found reading difficult texts easier and discovered that they retained information more effectively.
- 80% of those surveyed claimed that the précis helped them to become [better] "critical thinkers."
- Likewise, 80% found that writing the précis helped them to organize longer projects for writing classes.
- Of those surveyed, 56% found the précis useful in other classes, particularly in regard to writing for other classes.
- The same number (56%) found that the précis helped them to write more sophisticated sentence structured (which are one sign of "A" writing to teachers across the disciplines).
Woodworth, Margaret K. "The Rhetorical Précis." Rhetoric Review 7 (1988): 156-64. Print.
Note: the original publication information for articles and others works reprinted in anthologies can usually be found in the "credits" or "acknowledgments" sections of books, generally at the end. In our text, the credits are on pages 731-32. Unfortunately, the credits section does not provide dates for all works; however, dates can usually be found by conducting a net search. For example, the credits section in the text shows that the David Crary article was published by the Associated Press, but if you conducted an Internet search for "Crary, "Group Wants Shrek off Anti-obesity Campaign," you would also discover that the article was published April 25, 2007.
Here are other examples of rhetorical précis:
Sandra M. Gilbert, professor of English at the University of California, Davis, in her essay “Plain Jane’s Progress” (1977), suggests that Charlotte Brontë intended Jane Eyre to resemble John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress in that Jane’s pilgrimage through a series of events based on the enclosure and escape motif eventually lead toward the equality that Brontë herself sought. Gilbert supports this conclusion by using the structure of the novel to highlight the places Jane has been confined, the changes she undergoes during the process of escape, and the individuals and experiences that lead to her maturation concluding that "this marriage of true minds at Ferndean – this is the way" (501). Her purpose is to help readers see the role of women in Victorian England in order to help them understand the uniqueness and daring of Brontë’s work. She establishes a formal relationship with her audience of literary scholars interested in feminist criticism who are familiar with the work of Brontë, Bunyan, Lord Byron and others and are intrigued by feminist theory as it relates to Victorian literature.
Charles S. Peirce's article "The Fixation of Belief" (1877) asserts that humans have psychological and social mechanisms designed to protect and cement (or "fix") our beliefs. Peirce backs this claim up with descriptions of four methods of fixing belief, pointing out the effectiveness and potential weaknesses of each method. Peirce's purpose is to point out the ways that people commonly establish their belief systems in order to jolt the awareness of the reader into considering how their own belief system may the product of such methods and to consider what Peirce calls "the method of science" as a progressive alternative to the other three. Given the technical language used in the article, Peirce is writing to a well-educated audience with some knowledge of philosophy and history and a willingness to consider other ways of thinking.
In her essay “Cyberspace and Identity” (1999), Sherry Turkle argues that “today’s life on the screen dramatizes and concretizes a range of cultural trends that encourage us to think of identity in terms of multiplicity and flexibility” (272). Turkle supports her assertion by juxtaposing theories of cyberspace and identity formation with older understandings of identity found in psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Her purpose is to show readers that theories on cyberspace and identity, which claim that identity is multiple and cyclical, do not overturn, but rather add to our understandings of identity in order to encourage her audience “to rethink our relationship to the computer culture and psychoanalytic culture as proudly held joint citizenship” (278). Turkle’s tone assumes a highly educated audience who is familiar with theories not only of cyberspace and identity, but sociology and psychology as well.
In chapter one of his novel The Light in the Forest (1953), Conrad Richter insinuates that children suffer the most when adults fight. Richter develops this insinuation by contrasting Cuyloga’s adoption and later rejection of True Son when the white army demands the return of all white prisoners. Richter’s purpose in chapter one is to reveal True Son’s conflicting emotions in order to expose the effect that betrayal by adults has upon children. Richter employs an angry and betrayed tone to appeal to those readers who can sympathize with True Son’s feelings of painful rejection.
In an excerpt from his book Why Americans Hate Politics (1991), reprinted in the anthology Left, Right, and Center, edited by James Cornwell, E. J. Dionne, a Washington Post political columnist, argues that strident ideologues on both the left and the right shave polarized politics and crowded out serious debate and reasonable compromise about fundamental problems. He supports his claims by providing examples of divisive positions taken by influential leaders on each end of the political spectrum and providing evidence of disillusionment with politics and politicians among the rank and file, contrasting this with movements toward democracy in other parts of the world (328-345). Dionne’s purpose is to warn readers that democracy may be failing in the United States because of powerful special-interest groups and voter apathy in order to stimulate people to a “back-to-basics” approach to politics that recognizes the importance of civil discourse, compromise, and the search for common ground in order to accomplish real and needed change. His tone is serious but also cautiously hopeful; he has in mind an audience of intelligent, concerned people who have not become too alienated to no longer care or believe that they can effect change.
Student submission, English 1A, Fall 2011
The following template is designed to help you construct a rhetorical précis. Do NOT simply copy and paste this template and fill in the blanks. Your précis should be in paragraph form, as in the above examples.
Sentence One (What?)
_____________________________________ in the ______________ , _________________________________(year)
(author) (A. genre) (title)
__________________________ that ___________________________________________________________________ .
(B. verb) (major assertion or thesis)
Sentence Two (How?)
__________________________ supports (her) (his) ________________________ by ______________________________
(author's last name) (claims, assertions, arguments, etc.) (B. and C. types of evidence from text
in order presented in text)
Sentence Three (Why?)
(The author's purpose is to) __________________________________________________________ (in order to, so that, etc.)
Sentence Four (To Whom?)
(The author writes in a) _____________________ (tone for) ___________________________________________________ .
(E.) (apparent audience)
Here are examples of terms that can be used:
rhetorically accurate verb
verb followed by evidence
in order to
the author's tone is
|article||argues||comparing . . . .||convince||formal|
|book||asserts||contrasting . . . .||inform||earnest|
|book review||claims||defining . . . .||persuade||grave|
|chapter in ___||explains||describing||point out||humorous|
|excerpt from ___||implies||exploring . . . .||demonstrate that||concerned|
|column||suggests||explaining . . . .||show||informal|
|editorial||questions||illustrating . . . .||suggest that||serious|
The following suggestions are adapted from a handout at http://phsenglishcoalesce2.pbworks.com/w/page/45986311/Rhetorical%20Pr%C3%A9cis%20Template-Worksheet
Think of the first sentence
|WHO are you talking about?|
WHAT is their background?
WHAT did they write?
WHEN was it published?
WHAT is their point?
Think of the second sentence this way:
|HOW do they prove their thesis?|
Think of the third sentence
|WHAT are they trying to do?|
WHY is that their purpose? In order to accomplish what?
Think of the fourth sentence
WHO is the author trying to address?
Look for clues--who do they seem to be talking to?
WHAT relationship are they trying to establish?
Tone is an important clue--are they
Adapted from a handout at http://phsenglishcoalesce2.pbworks.com/w/page/45986311/Rhetorical%20Pr%C3%A9cis%20Template-Worksheet
Angela Cutone, Brianna Duffy, Brendan Murphy, and Caroline Murphy
Benjamin Franklin wrote the speech of Polly Baker as a work of fiction which worked to represent a court case of a woman named Polly Baker. Although still unsure, it is believed that the speech was written in 1746, but it was first published in London’s The General Advertiser on April 15, 1747.It was also published in multiple other newspapers, including some in the states. The author was unknown for a long time and the whole time it was believed the the story of Polly Baker was true. In 1788 Benjamin Franklin revealed it was he who wrote the speech. The speech moved many Europeans and was used to help with reformation.
In this work, we are introduced to the main character Miss Polly Baker and her plight. She is arguing her case in front of a court of law, without a lawyer, because she is unable to afford one. Polly Baker has been charged five times with having children outside of wedlock, and has been punished by both fines and public humiliation. She questions the fairness of the law in general. She states that in her eyes, the law is unreasonable and that she has done nothing wrong. Polly says that her life has been inoffensive, and that she has never committed a crime. She says that she has brought children into the world, risking her life and doing everything she can to allow them to live and grow up.
Polly begins her main argument by saying that she is not against being married and is still willing to enter into marriage, even after being married once, trusting some man completely and being betrayed. This man left her with a child. He was never punished, and instead became a Magistrate of the courts. She questions why she is punished and he is allowed to advance to a place of power within the government; why is she the one being punished for something that is not even her fault to begin with?
She believes that instead God is happy with her deeds and she has simply taken part in the natural process of increasing and multiplying the population.
Finally, she mentions the increasing number of single men, who are scared of how expensive raising a family is and simply do not reproduce. Polly compares this to being no better than a murder and being a greater offence to the public good than what she has been charged with. Polly argues that women are powerless to do anything, as they are punished for it if it is outside wedlock. In the ending statement, she thinks that instead of public punishment, a statue should be erected in her honor and memory because she has not committed a crime, but instead furthered the public good with her actions, and endured the wrongful punishments that accompanied them.
The format of this essay is definitely something to be noted. Given that it is in the form of a testimony before a court, the syntax is formal, but simple to understand. Polly Baker is, understandably, frustrated with the circumstances surrounding this trial and her having been brought to trial for the fifth time, and thus has an irate, righteous, and vaguely outraged tone. However, read from the perspective of satire, Benjamin Franklin’s overall purpose gives this entire piece another side, another edge and another tone. His tone is caustic and pointed, directly attacking the patriarchy for their hypocrisy on this matter. Through the use of more simple diction, Franklin makes this story easy for anyone to understand, as the issue of a lack of women’s rights affects everyone. The format of a trial puts this issue on trial–should women be given more rights? He leaves the resolution open ended for the reader to decide, but it leaves everyone thinking about the points Polly Baker made.
Why is it important?:
The speech of Miss Polly Baker is very important because it touches upon the gender inequality that is prevalent in society. Miss Polly Baker is a single mother of five who was once married but her husband left her with a child to become a court magistrate. After her first marriage Miss Polly Baker then had four more children leaving her with five in total, all of which she will get fined for. It is unfair to fine Polly Baker because she has provided well for her children with no help from anyone else. This can be considered a feminist piece of writing because Polly Baker is proving that even though she is a woman she is self sufficient and can provide for all of her children on her own without the help of a man, even with the fines and public humiliation Polly Baker is a strong woman.