Kannada Nadu Essay In Kannada Language Pronunciation

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Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ kannaḍa), a Dravidian language with some 50 million speakers, is an official language of India and the state language of Karnataka. It is also the language which you will encounter in Bangalore, a city you might have heard of quite a bit recently. It is also the language you will encounter if you visit the historically significant cities of Mysore and Hampi, so arming yourself with rudimentary knowledge of Kannada is a good idea if you wish to visit those places.

Kannada is a Dravidian language, which means that it belongs to the same family as the other South Indian languages Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Tulu. These languages share many words, sentence structures and even expressions, which means that if you pick up any one, your path to learning the others is considerably eased.

Contemporary Kannada literature is the most successful in India, with India's highest literary honor, the Jnanpith awards, having been conferred eight times upon Kannada writers, which is the highest for any language in India. Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the Ministry of Culture, the Government of India officially recognised Kannada as a classical language.

It is a commonly-held belief that because Kannada is more accepting of Sanskrit loan words, learning conversational Hindi (Hindi language owes most of its vocabulary to Sanskrit) will help you pick up Kannada. This is false. Though Kannada literature has over the years accepted many Sanskrit and Prakrit languages words, the conversational(colloquial) Kannada has very little influence from Sanskrit or any other Indo-European language.

In plain and simple words, knowing conversational Hindi, conversational Marathi, or Sanskrit might not help learning/speaking day-to-day conversational Kannada with the native speakers, unless a native speaker to whom you are speaking has prior knowledge of Hindi/Marathi.

Just as the Dravidian languages like Telugu and Tamil share lot of words with Kannada, the grammatical structure (colloquial speech) of these languages are quite similar also. A person with prior knowledge of conversational Telugu or Conversational Tamil may find it easier to learn Kannada. But when it comes to conversing, the pronunciation of Kannada compared to the other Dravidian languages like Tamil and Telugu is quite different, and the words and sentences shared between these sister languages are often mutually unintelligible.

Pronunciation[edit]

Most English speakers find Kannada pronunciation rather challenging, as there are 10 vowels, 2 diphthongs and 34 consonants, employing a large number of distinctions not found in English.

Vowels[edit]

The key distinction is the difference between short and long vowels. In this phrase book, the short vowels are noted with small letters [a, e, i, o, u] and long vowels are noted with capital letters [A, E, I, O, U]. You will often come across non-standard romanizations, noted in table below when applicable.

Diphthongs[edit]

Letter Transliteration English equivalent
ai, ayas in idea.
au, avas in out.

Consonants[edit]

Many Kannada consonants come in three different forms: aspirated, unaspirated and retroflex.

Aspiration means "with a puff of air", and is the difference between the sound of the letter "p" in English pin (aspirated) and spit (unaspirated). In this phrasebook, aspirated sounds are spelled with an h (so English "pin" would be phin) and unaspirated sounds without it (so "spit" is still spit). Kannada aspiration is quite forceful and it's OK to emphasize the puff.

Kannada retroflex consonants, on the other hand, are not really found in English. They should be pronounced with the tongue tip curled back.

Letter Transliteration English equivalent
ಕ್, ಕk, kaas in skip.
ಖ್, ಖkh, khaas in sinkhole.
ಗ್, ಗg, ghaas in go.
ಘ್, ಘgh, ghaas in ghost.
ಙ್, ಙṅ, ṅaas in sing. Rarely used.
ಚ್, ಚc, caas in church.
ಛ್, ಛ ch, chaas in pinchhit.
ಜ್, ಜ j, jaas in jump.
ಝ್, ಝ jh, jhaas in dodge her.
ಞ್, ಞ ñ, ñaas in canyon. Rarely used.
ಟ್, ಟ ṭ ṭaas in tick. Retroflex, but still a "hard" t sound similar to English.
ಠ್, ಠ ṭ ṭhaas in lighthouse. Retroflex
ಡ್, ಡ ḍ ḍaas in doom. Retroflex
ಢ್, ಢ ḍ ḍhaas in mudhut. Retroflex
ಣ್, ಣ ṇ ṇaretroflex n. Retroflex
ತ್, ತ t, tadoes not exist in English. more dental t, with a bit of a th sound. Softer than an English t.
ಥ್, ಥ th, thaaspirated version of the previous letter, not as in thanks or the.
ದ್, ದ d, dadental d.
ಧ್, ಧ dh, dhaaspirated version of the above.
ನ್, ನ n, nadental n.
ಪ್, ಪ p, paas in spin.
ಫ್, ಫ ph, phaas in u'ph'ill.
ಬ್, ಬ b, baas in be.
ಭ್, ಭ bh, bhaas in abhor.
ಮ್, ಮ m. maas in mere.
ಯ್, ಯ y, yaas in yet.
ರ್, ರ r, raas in Spanish pero, a tongue trip. Don't roll as in Spanish rr, German or Scottish English.
ಲ್, ಲ l, laas in lean.
ವ್, ವ v, vaas in Spanish vaca, between English v and w, but without the lip rounding of an English w. (IPA: ʋ).
ಶ್, ಶ ś śaas in shoot.
ಷ್, ಷ ṣ ṣaalmost indistinguishable retroflex of the above. slightly more aspirated. Used only in Sanskrit loan words.
ಸ್, ಸ s, saas in see.
ಹ್, ಹ h, haas in him.
ಳ್, ಳ;ḷ, ḷa Retroflex l.

Kannada Phrases[edit]

Cultural Notes[edit]

Greetings: There are no time elemental greetings in Kannada such as good morning, good afternoon, etc. Since each language has its own greetings, it is considered very gracious to address a person by their respective greetings. In India, Namaskāra is the most ubiquitous greeting, and though of Sanskrit origin is now mostly used all across India. It is said with hands folded and a small gesture of bowing. Namaskāra literally means "I bow to you." Namaste has the same meaning, but is used less often in Kannada. After meeting someone for the first time nimmanna kaNDu bahaLa khushi āyitu [ನಿಮ್ಮನ್ನ ಕಂಡು ಬಹಳ ಖುಶಿ’ಆಯಿತು] may be said, meaning "I am delighted/happy to see you"


Civilities: In Western cultures saying phrases like please, thank you, you're welcome, excuse me, sorry, etc. are so ingrained into them from a young age that they use these phrases without a second thought. Not so for Indians. In India, saying such phrases in an inappropriate circumstance might even embarrass the person, or cheapen the gravity of the phrase itself. These phrases are only said in a sincere sense. For example, don't say dhanyavāda [ಧನ್ಯವಾದ] / nimminda bahaLa upakāra vāyitu [ನಿಮ್ಮಿಂದ ಬಹಳ ಉಪಕಾರವಾಯಿತು] (thank you) after a clerk hands you your grocery bag, but don't forget to use it when someone goes out of their way to do something nice for you. Sometimes English words themselves are used, due to the British colonial influence, especially in urban areas and among the upper class. In this case use them as you would in English. In India in a majority of times these kind of phrases/sentiments are merely communicated through body language rather than verbally. To show your thanks, a simple smile will do the trick. Other common gestures include the infamous "head bobble"; and a hand gesture made by swiftly swinging the wrist so your palm is facing the sky and your forefingers slightly elongated.


Prefixes & Suffixes: When referring to a person for the majority of words (ರೀ) may be added as a suffix to give it a more polite tone. The word itself could be used to refer to a person. For Example, Mr. Murray, please come over here may be said as ರೀ Murray ಬರ್ರಿ ಇಲ್ಲಿ [ rI Murray barri illi]. The suffix avaru is used with a person's name as a sign of respect. For example, Mr. Murray is often referred to as Murray avaru. A few more suffixes which are indispensable are avanu [ಅವನು] , avaLu [ಅವಳು] , and avaru [ಅವರು]. With nouns it gives the meaning of "the person(he, she) that does", and with verbs it indicates that something is happening. Examples include the following:

  • noun – shop (ಅಂಗಡಿ angaDi) + avanu = shopkeeper (ಅಂಗಡಿಯವನು... angaDiyavanu)
  • verb – to see (ನೋಡು nODu) + avaru = onlookers (ನೋಡುವವರು ... nODuvavaru)


English Loan Words: The British colonial influence has spread into the language itself, and this continues today with American culture being exported throughout the world. So, an English word or phrase may almost always be inserted into any Kannada sentence. You will often hear Indians, even while talking in their native languages, pepper their sentences with English words. English loan words are particularly used for modern inventions/technologies, so words like TV, computer and microwave are the same as in English apart from the slight change of accent. However, this is mostly in the cities, and learning Kannada will have been all the more rewarding when in rural or non-tourist areas, as well as allowing you to communicate with a wider variety of people in the cities.

Basics[edit]

Common signs

The signs are always accompanied by English, but just in case:

OPEN 
ತೆರೆ "tere"
CLOSED 
ಮುಚ್ಚಿದೆ "muccide"
ENTRANCE 
ಒಳಕ್ಕೆ [ದಾರಿ] "oLakke [dAri]"
EXIT 
ಹೊರಕ್ಕೆ [ದಾರಿ] "horakke [dAri]"
PUSH 
ನೂಕಿರಿ "nUkiri"
ತಳ್ಳಿರಿ "taLLiri"
PULL 
ಎಳೆಯಿರಿ "eLeyiri"
ಜಗ್ಗಿರಿ "jaggiri"
PRESS (the button) 
ಅದುಮಿರಿ "adumiri"
TOILET 
ಶೌಚಾಲಯ "shaucAlaya"
BATHROOM 
ನೀರ್’ಮನೆ "nIr'mane"
ಅಬ್ಬಿಮನೆ "abbimane"
ಬಚ್ಚಿಲು "baccilu"
MEN 
ಗಂಡಸರು "gaNDasaru"
ಪುರುಷರು "puruSharu"
WOMEN 
ಹೆಂಗಸರು "hengasaru"
ಮಹಿಳೆಯರು "mahiLeyaru"
NO SMOKING 
[ಇಲ್ಲಿ] ಸಿಗರೇಟ್ ಸೇದುವ ಹಾಗಿಲ್ಲ "[illi] sigarET sEduva hAgilla"
ಧೂಮಪಾನ ನಿಷೇಧಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ "dhUmapAna niShEdhisalAgide"
TO LET 
ಬಾಡಿಗೆಗೆ "bADigege"
NO ADMISSION
ಒಳಗೆ ಬರುವ ಹಾಗಿಲ್ಲ "oLage baruva hAgilla"
ಒಳ ಬರಲು ಅಪ್ಪಣೆ ಇಲ್ಲ "oLa baralu appaNe illa"
ಪ್ರವೇಶವಿಲ್ಲ "pravESavilla"
NO ENTRANCE
ಒಳಕ್ಕೆ ದಾರಿಯಿಲ್ಲ "oLakke dAriyilla"
NO EXIT
ಹೊರಕ್ಕೆ ದಾರಿಯಿಲ್ಲ "horakke dAriyilla"
NO THROUGH WAY
[ಮುಂದೆ] ದಾರಿಯಿಲ್ಲ "[munde] dAriyilla"
FORBIDDEN
[ಪ್ರವೇಶ] ನಿಷೇಧಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ "[pravEsha] niShEdhisalAgide"

How do you do?[edit]

English Kannada Transliteration
how do you do?
(plural, with respect)
ಏನ್ರಿ
ಏನ್ ಸಾರ್
ಏನ್ ಸ್ವಾಮಿ
Enri
En sAr
En svAmi
how do you do?
(singular, with respect)
(used by elders for any young male)
ಏನಯ್ಯ
ಏನಪ್ಪ

Enappa
how do you do?
(singular, with respect)
(used by elders for any young female)
ಏನಮ್ಮ
(Usage: South Karnataka);
ಏನವ್ವ
(Usage: North Karnataka);
Enamma;

Enavva
How's it going?
How are things?
ಹೇಗ್(ಎ) ನಡೆದಿದೆ
ಹ್ಯಾಗ್(ಎ) ನಡೆದಯ್ತೆ
hEg(e) naD(e)dide
hyAg(e) naDedayte
What's going on? ಏನ್(ಉ) ನಡೆದಿದೆ
ಏನ್(ಉ) ನಡೆದಯ್ತೆ
En(u) naD(e)dide
En(u) naDedayte
Is it good?ಚೆನ್ನಾಗಿದೆಯಾ?cennAgideyA?
It is fine.ಚೆನ್ನಾಗಿದೆcennAgide
It is not good.ಚೆನ್ನಾಗ್’ಇಲ್ಲcennAg'illa
It is too much.
[price is dear]
ತುಂಬ ಜಾಸ್ತಿtumba jAsti
Only so much?ಅಷ್ಟೇನಾ?aShTEnA?
Is that all?ಅಷ್ಟೇನಾ?aShTEnA?
It is O.K.ಪರವಾಗಿಲ್ಲparavAgilla
It's alright.ಪರವಾಗಿಲ್ಲparavAgilla
Not bad!ಪರವಾಗಿಲ್ಲparavAgilla
!|ಪರವಾಗಿಲ್ಲparavAgilla
Alright!ಸರಿsari
That is all.ಅಷ್ಟೇaShTE
There is plenty.ಬೇಕಾದ್’ಅಷ್ಟ್’ಇದೆbEkAd'aShT'ide
Please take.ತಗೋಳಿ, ತಗೋಳ್ರಿtagOLi, tagOLri
Please see / look.ನೋಡಿ, ನೋಡ್ರಿnODi, nODri
Not bad.ಸುಮಾರ್’ಆಗಿದೆsumAr'Agide
[I am] very tired.[ನನಗ್] ತುಂಬ ಸುಸ್ತ್’ಆಗಿದೆ
ತುಂಬ ದಣುವಾಗಿದೆ
tumba sust'Agide
tumba daNuvAgide
[I am] bored.[ನನಗ್] ಬೇಜಾರು
[ನನಗ್] ಬಹಳ ಬೇಸರ’ಆಗಿದೆ
[nanag] bEjAru
[nanag] bahaLa bEsara'Agide
Oh, it is very difficult.ಅಯ್ಯೋ! ತುಂಬ ಕಷ್ಟ ayyO! tumba kaShTa
Please have a wash.ಕೈ ಕಾಲ್ ತೊಳ್ಕೊಳ್ಳಿ kai kAl toLkoLLi
Please have lunch/dinner;
Please make yourself ready for lunch.
ಊಟಕ್ಕ್ ಏಳಿ;
ಊಟಕ್ಕೆ ಎದ್ದೇಳಿ
UTakk ELi; UTakke eddELi;
Are you not well?ಮೈಯಲ್ಲ್ ಚೆನ್ನಾಗ್’ಇಲ್ಲ್’ವಾ? maiyall chennAg'ill'vA?
Please reduce [the price] a bit.ಸೊಲ್ಪ ಕಡಿಮೆ ಮಾಡಿ
ಸೊಲ್ಪ ಕಡಿಮೆ ತಗೊಳ್ಳಿ
solpa kaDime mADi
solpa kaDime tagoLLi

Useful phrases in Kannada[edit]

English Kannada Transliteration
Hello, how are you
(singular, with respect)?
ಏನಯ್ಯ/ಏನಮ್ಮ, ಹೇಗ್’ಇದೀಯ? Enayya/Enamma, hEg'idiya?
Hello, how are you
(plural, with respect)?
ಏನ್ ರಿ, ಹೇಗ್’ಇದೀರ?
ನಮಸ್ಕಾರ, ಹೇಗ್’ಇದೀರ?
Enri hEg'idIra?
namaskAra, hEg'idIra?
I am fine. ನಾನ್’ ಚೆನ್ನಾಗ್’ಇದೀನಿ. nAn' chennAg'idIni.
How is your family?
(Is everyone well at home?)
ಮನೇಲ್’ ಎಲ್ಲ ಚೆನ್ನಾಗ್’ಇದಾರ? manEl' ella chennAg'idAra?
Everyone is fine. ಎಲ್ಲ್’ರೂ ಚೆನ್ನಾಗ್’ಇದಾರೆ. ell'rU chennAg'idAre.
What's the matter? ಏನ್ ವಿಶ್ಯ? En vishya?
Can you-guys wait for me? ನನಗ್’ [ನೀವ್] ಕಾಯ್’ತೀರ? nanag' [nIv] kAy'tIra?
Can you wait for me? ನನಗ್’ [ನೀನ್] ಕಾಯ್’ತೀಯ? nanag' [nIn] kAy'tIya?
Can you(plural, you guys) wait for us? ನಮಗ್’ [ನೀವ್] ಕಾಯ್’ತೀರ? namag' [nIv] kAy'tIra?
Can you(singular) wait for us? ನಮಗ್’ [ನೀನ್] ಕಾಯ್’ತೀಯ? namag' [nIn] kAy'tIya?
Can they wait for us? ನಮಗ್’ [ಅವರ್] ಕಾಯ್’ತಾರ? namag' [avar] kAy'tAra?
Can he(singular) wait for us? ನಮಗ್’ [ಅವನ್] ಕಾಯ್’ತಾನ? namag' [avan] kAy'tAna?
Can she(singular) wait for us? ನಮಗ್’ [ಅವಳ್] ಕಾಯ್’ತಾಳ? namag' [avaL] kAy'tALa?
Can he/she(with respect) wait for us? ನಮಗ್’ [ಅವರ್] ಕಾಯ್’ತಾರ? namag' [avar] kAy'tAra?
Can it(plural) wait for us? ನಮಗ್’ [ಅವ್] ಕಾಯ್’ತಾವ? namag' [av] kAy'tAva?
Can it(singular) wait for us? ನಮಗ್’ [ಅದ್] ಕಾಯ್’ತದ (/ಕಾಯ್’ಅತ್ತ)? namag' [ad] kAy'tada (/kAy'atta)?
Ok, I will wait. ಸರಿ, ನಾನ್’ [ನಿನಗ್’] ಕಾಯ್’ತೀನಿ. sari, nAn' [ninag'] kAy'tIni.
Ok, We will wait. ಸರಿ, ನಾನ್’ [ನಿನಗ್’] ಕಾಯ್’ತೀವಿ. sari, nAn' [ninag'] kAy'tIvi.
Ok, He/She/They (plural, with respect) will wait. ಸರಿ, ಅವರ್ [ನಿನಗ್’/ನಿಮಗ್’] ಕಾಯ್’ತಾರೆ. sari, avar [ninag'/nimag'] kAy'tAre.
Ok, He will wait. ಸರಿ, ಅವನ್ [ನಿನಗ್’/ನಿಮಗ್’] ಕಾಯ್’ತಾನೆ. sari, avan [ninag'/nimag'] kAy'tAne.
Ok, She will wait. ಸರಿ, ಅವನ್ [ನಿನಗ್’/ನಿಮಗ್’] ಕಾಯ್’ತಾಳೆ. sari, avan [ninag'/nimag'] kAy'tALe.
Ok, it (plural) will wait. ಸರಿ, ಅವ್ [ನಿನಗ್’/ನಿಮಗ್’] ಕಾಯ್’ತಾವೆ. sari, av [ninag'/nimag'] kAy'tAve.
Ok, it (singular) will wait. ಸರಿ, ಅದ್ [ನಿನಗ್’/ನಿಮಗ್’] ಕಾಯ್’ತದೆ (ಕಾಯ್’ಅತ್ತೆ). sari, ad [ninag'/nimag'] kAy'tade (kAy'atte).
Can we meet today? ಇವತ್ತ್’ ನಾವ್’ ಸಿಗೋಣ್’ವಾ? ivatt' nAv' sigON'vA?
We will meet today at 4 o'clock. ನಾವ್’ ಇವತ್ತ್’ ೪ ಗಂಟೆ’ಗ್ ಮೀಟ್ ಆಗೋಣ. nAv' ivatt' 4 gaNTe'g mIT AgONa.
Can you come there? ನಿನಗ್’ ಅಲ್ಲಿ’(ಗ್) ಬರ್’ಲಿಕ್ಕ್’ಆಗುತ್ತಾ? ninag' alli'(g) bar'likk'AguttA?
Can you[guys] come there? ನಿಮಗ್’ ಅಲ್ಲಿ’(ಗ್) ಬರ್’ಲಿಕ್ಕ್’ಆಗುತ್ತಾ? nimag' alli'(g) bar'likk'AguttA?
Yes, I can come there. [ಸರಿ, ನನಗ್ ಅಲ್ಲಿಗ್’] ಬರ್’ಲಿಕ್ಕ್’ ಆಗುತ್ತೆ. [sari, nanag allig'] bar'likk' Agutte.
Yes, We can come there. [ಸರಿ, ನಮಗ್ ಅಲ್ಲಿಗ್’] ಬರ್’ಲಿಕ್ಕ್’ ಆಗುತ್ತೆ. [sari, namag allig'] bar'likk' Agutte.
Is it so? ಇದ್ ಹೀಗೋ? id hIgO?
Yes, man. ಹೌದ್’ ಕಣೊ/ಮಾರಾಯ. haud' kaNo/mArAya.
Yes, miss. ಹೌದ್’ ಕಣೆ/ಮಾರಾಯ್ತಿ. haud' kaNe/mArAyti.
Yes, Sir. ಹೌದ್’ ಸಾರ್/ಕಣ್ರಿ/ರೀ. haud' sAr/kaNri/rI.
Yes, Madam. ಹೌದ್’ ಮೇಡಂ/ಕಣ್ರಿ/ರೀ. haud' mEDam/kaNri/rI.
Glad to meet you (singular). ನಿನ್ನನ್ ನೋಡಿ ತುಂಬ ಖುಶಿ’ಆಯ್ತು. ninnan nODi tumba khushi'Aytu.
OK, see you next time. OK, ಮತ್ತ್’ ಸಿಗೋಣ. OK, matt' sigONa.
Will that take some time? ಅದಕ್ಕ್’ ತುಂಬ ಹೊತ್ತ್’ ಆಗುತ್ತಾ? adakk' tumba hott' AguttA? adakk' tumba hott' hiDiyuttA?
Give me one masala dosa. ನನಗ್’ ಒಂದ್’ ಮಸಾಲೆ ದೋಸೆ ಕೊಡಿ/ಕೊಡ್’ರಿ. nanag' ond' masAle dOse koDi/koD'ri.
I dont want that. ನನಗ್’ ಅದ್’ ಬೇಡ. nanag' ad' bEDa.
I dont want that much. ನನಗ್’ ಅಷ್ಟೊಂದ್’ ಬೇಡ. nanag' aShTond' bEDa.
How much does this cost? ಇದಕ್ಕ್’ ಎಷ್ಟು? idakk' eShTu?
The price is too high. RATE ತುಂಬ ಜಾಸ್ತಿ ಆಯ್ತು. RATE tumba jAsti Aytu.
Please lower the cost. RATE ಸ್ವಲ್ಪ ಕಡಿಮೆ ಮಾಡಿ/ಮಾಡ್’ರಿ;
ಬೆಲೆ ಸಲ್ಪ ಕಮ್ಮಿ ಮಾಡಿ/ಮಾಡ್’ರಿ;
RATE svalpa kaDime mADi/mAD'ri;
bele salpa kammi mADi/mAD'ri
Show me the new designs. ನನಗ್’ ಹೊಸ DESIGNS ತೋರ್ಸಿ/ತೋರ್’ಸ್ರಿ/ತೋರಿಸ್’ರಿ. nanag' hosa DESIGNS tOrsi/tOr'sri/tOris'ri.
I will pay by cheque. ನಾನ್’ CHEQUE ಕೊಡ್’ತೀನಿ. nAn' CHEQUE koD'tIni.
Do you accept cards? ನೀವ್’ DEBIT/CREDIT CARDS ತಗೊಣ್’ತೀರಾ?;
ನೀವ್’ CREDIT CARDS ಇಸ್ಕೊಣ್’ತೀರಾ?;
nIv' DEBIT/CREDIT CARDS tagoN'tIrA?;
nIv' CREDIT CARDS iskoN'tIrA?;
When will the ordered goods arrive? ORDER ಮಾಡಿದ್’ GOODS ಯಾವಾಗ್’ ಬರುತ್ತೆ? ORDER mADid' GOODS yAvAg' barutte?
Whats the time now? ಈಗ್’ ಎಷ್ಟ್’ ಹೊತ್ತ್’ಆಯ್ತು? Ig' eShT' hott'Aytu?
Thanks! ಧನ್ಯ’ವಾದ; [ತುಂಬ] ಥ್ಯಾಂಕ್ಸ್ ರೀ; dhanya'vAda; [tumba] thyAnks rI;
Can you bring a cup of water? ನನಗ್’ ಒಂದ್’ ಲೋಟ ನೀರ್’ ತಾ;
ನನಗ್’ ಒಂದ್’ ಕಪ್ಪ್’ ನೀರ್’ ತರ್’ತೀಯ?;
ನನಗ್’ ಒಂದ್’ ಗ್ಲಾಸ್’ ನೀರ್’ ತಂದ್’ಕೊಡ್’ತೀಯ?;
nanag' ond' lOTa nIr' tA;
nanag' ond' kapp' nIr' tar'tIya?;
nanag' ond' glAs' nIr' tand'koD'tIya?;
Whats the time now? ಟೈಂ ಎಷ್ಟ್’ಆಯ್ತು? Taim eShT'Aytu?
Welcome!
(addressing a gathering)
[ನಿಮಗೆ] ಸ್ವಾಗತ;
[ನಿಮಗ್’ ಎಲ್ಲರಿಗೂ]ಸುಸ್ವಾಗತ;
[nimage] svAgata;
[nimag' ellarigU]susvAgata
Welcome!
(welcoming a respected person)
ಬನ್ನಿ ದಯ’ಮಾಡಿ;
ದಯ’ಮಾಡಿಸಿ;
banni daya'mADi;
daya'mADisi;
Welcome!
(welcoming a person/people into your circle)
ಬನ್ನಿ, ಬನ್ನಿ!;
ಬರ್ರಿ, ಬರ್ರಿ!;
banni, banni!;
barri, barri!;
Come in!ಒಳಗ್’ ಬನ್ನಿ;
ಒಳಗ್’ ಬರ್ರಿ;
oLag' banni;
oLag' barri;
Hello! [sir]ನಮಸ್’ಕಾರ ರಿ;
ನಮಸ್ತೆ ರಿ;
ನಮಸ್’ಕಾರ;
namas'kAra ri;
namaste ri;
namas'kAra;
How do you do [sir]?ಏನ್ ರಿ [ಸಮಾಚಾರ];
ಏನ್ ಸಾರ್ [ಸಮಾಚಾರ];
ಏನ್ ಸ್ವಾಮಿ [ಸಮಾಚಾರ];
Enri[samAchAra];
En sAr [samAchAra];
En svAmi [samAchAra];
what do you want from me [sir]?ಏನ್ರಿ [ಏನಾಗಬೇಕಿತ್ತು];
ಏನ್ ಸಾರ್ [ಏನಾಗಬೇಕಿತ್ತು];
ಏನ್ ಸ್ವಾಮಿ [ಏನಾಗಬೇಕಿತ್ತು];
Enri[En'AgabEkittu];
En sAr [En'AgabEkittu];
En svAmi [En'AgabEkittu];
what is it [sir]?ಏನ್ರಿ [[ಏನದು];
ಏನ್ ಸಾರ್ [ಏನದು];
ಏನ್ ಸ್ವಾಮಿ [ಏನದು];
Enri [Enadu];
En sAr [Enadu];
En svAmi [Enadu];
Term of address for any individual
Hello Mr./Sir
Hello Ms./Madam etc.,
ರೀrI;
Long time no see!ತುಂಬ ದಿವಸಗಳಾದವು [ನೀವು] ಕಂಡಿಲ್ಲ;tumba divasagaL'Adavu [nIvu] kaNDilla;
Long time I haven't seen/met you!ತುಂಬ ದಿವಸಗಳಾದವು [ನಿಮ್ಮ್’ಅನ್] ಕಂಡಿಲ್ಲ;tumba divasagaL'Adavu [nimm'an] kaNDilla;
What's your name (singular)?ನಿನ್ನ್’ ಹೆಸರ್ ಏನು?ninn' hesar Enu?
What's your name (plural, with respect)?ನಿಮ್ಮ್’ ಹೆಸರ್ ಏನು?nimm' hesar Enu?
What's your name (plural, with greater respect)?ತಮ್ಮ್’ ಹೆಸರ್ ಏನು?tamm' hesar Enu?
My name is ...ನನ್ನ್’ ಹೆಸರು ....nann' hesaru ....
Where are you from?
(singualr, no respect)
ನೀನ್ ಎಲ್ಲಿಂದ ಬಂದ್’ಇದ್ದೀಯ?nIn ell'inda band'idd'Iya?
Where are you from?
(plural, with respect)
ನೀವ್ ಎಲ್ಲಿಂದ ಬಂದ್’ಇದ್ದೀರ?nIv ell'inda band'idd'Ira?
Where are you from?
(plural, with greater respect)
ತಾವ್ ಎಲ್ಲಿಂದ ಬಂದ್’ಇದ್ದೀರ?tAv ell'inda band'idd'Ira?
I'm from ...ನಾನ್’ ... ಲಿಂದ ಬಂದ್’ಇದ್ದೀನಿnAn' ... linda band'iddIni
Goodbye!
(when leaving, a individual)
ಬರ್’ತೀನಿ;
ಹೋಗ್’ ಬರ್’ತೀನಿ;
bar'tIni;
hOg' bar'tIni;
Goodbye!
(when leaving, more than one person)
ಬರ್’ತೀವಿ;
ಹೋಗ್’ ಬರ್’ತೀವಿ;
bar'tIvi;
hOg' bar'tIvi;
Goodbye! (reply)ಆಯ್ತು, ಹೋಗ್’ ಬನ್ನಿ;
ಸಂತೋಷ, ಹೋಗ್’ಬಿಟ್ಟ್’ಬನ್ನಿ;
Aytu, hOg' banni;
santOSha, hOg'biTT'banni;
Goodbye!
(when sending off somebody)
ಹೋಗ್’ ಬನ್ನಿ;
ಹೋಗ್’ ಬರ್ರಿ;
hOg' banni;
hOg' barri;
Wish you good luck(Goodbye)![ಹೋಗ್’ ಬನ್ನಿ] ಒಳ್ಳೆಯದಾಗಲಿ;[hOg' banni] oLLeyad'Agali;
Good luck!ಒಳ್ಳೆಯದಾಗಲಿ;oLLeyad'Agali;
Please speak more slowly!ಸಲ್ಪ ಮೆಲ್ಲಗೆ ಮಾತಾಡಿ;
ಸ್ವಲ್ಪ ನಿಧಾನವಾಗಿ ಮಾತಾಡಿ;
salpa mellage mAtADi;
svalpa nidhAna'vAgi mAtADi;
Please speak in a low voice!ಸಲ್ಪ ಮೆತ್ತಗೆ ಮಾತಾಡಿ;salpa mettage mAtADi;
Please say that again!ಇನ್ನೊಮ್ಮೆ ಹೇಳಿ;
ಇನ್ನೊಂದ್’ಸಲ ಹೇಳಿ;
innomme hELi;
inn'ond'sala hELi;
Please write it down!ಬರೆದ್’ ಕೊಳ್ಳ್’ರಿ;bared' koLL'ri;
Please note it down
(for your future reference)!
ಬರೆದ್’ ಇಟ್ಟ್’ಕೊಳ್ಳ್’ರಿ;bared' iTT'koLL'ri;
How much is this?ಇದಕ್ಕ್’ ಎಷ್ಟು?idakk' eSh'Tu?
Where's the beach?ಬೀಚ್ ಎಲ್ಲಿದೆ?bIch ell'ide?
Where's the room?ರೂಂ ಎಲ್ಲಿದೆ?rUm ell'ide?
Don't touch me!ನನ್ನ(ನ್) ಮುಟ್ಟ್’ಬೇಡ;nanna(n) muTT'bEDa;
Leave me alone!
(Don't disturb me)
ನನ್ನ್’ ಪಾಡಿಗೆ ನನಗ್ ಬಿಟ್ಟ್’ಬಿಡಿ!nann' pADige nanag' biTT'biDi!
Help! (save me)[ನನ್ನ] ಕಾಪಾಡಿ[nanna] kApADi!
Fire! Fire!ಬೆಂಕಿ! ಬೆಂಕಿ!;
[ಇಲ್ಲಿ] ಬೆಂಕಿ ಬಿದ್ದಿದೆ;
benki! benki!;
[illi] benki biddide;
Happy Birthday!ಹುಟ್ಟು ಹಬ್ಬದ ಶುಭಾಶಯhuTTu habbada SubhASaya;
Happy Easterಈಸ್ಟರ್ ಹಬ್ಬದ ಶುಭಾಶಯIsTar habbada SubhASaya;
Happy New Year!ಹೊಸ ವರ್ಷದ ಶುಭಾಶಯhosa varShada SubhASaya;
Please, I beg you! [help me]ದಮ್ಮಯ್ಯ ಅಂತೀನಿ! [help ಮಾಡಿ];damm'ayya antIni! [HELP mADi];
Call the Police! ಪೋಲೀಸ್’ಅನ್ ಕರೀರಿ;pOlIs'an karIri;
When will you come [back] (singular)? ಮತ್ತ್’ ಯಾವಾಗ್ ಬರ್ತೀಯ?matt' yAvAg bartIya?
When will you come [back]
(plural, with respect)?
ಮತ್ತ್’ ಯಾವಾಗ್ ಬರ್ತೀರ?matt' yAvAg bartIra?
When did you come? (singular) ಯಾವಾಗ್ ಬಂದೆ?yAvAg bande?
When did you come?
(plural, with respect)
ಯಾವಾಗ್ ಬಂದ್’ರಿ?yAvAg band'ri?
What did you eat? (singular) [ನೀನ್] ಏನ್ ತಿಂದೆ?[nIn] En tinde?
What did you eat?
(plural, with respect)
[ನೀವ್] ಏನ್ ತಿಂದ್’ರಿ?[nIv] En tind'ri?
Come Later (singular)! ಆಮೇಲ್ ಬಾ;AmEl bA;
Come Later (plural, with respect)! ಆಮೇಲ್ ಬರ್ರಿ;AmEl barri;
Excuse me (getting attention)
[Lit.: sir/madam, look here!]
ಇಲ್ಲ್ ನೋಡಿ;
ನೋಡಿ ಇಲ್ಲಿ;
ill nODi;
nODi illi;
Excuse me (getting attention)
[Lit.: sir/madam, listen here]!
ಇಲ್ಲ್ ಕೇಳಿ;
ಕೇಳಿ ಇಲ್ಲಿ;
ill kELi;
kELi illi;
I’m Sorry (begging pardon)! [ನನ್ನಿಂದ] ತಪ್ಪಾಯ್ತು, ಕ್ಷಮಿಸಿ;[nann'inda] tappAytu, kShamisi;
Its Expensive! ತುಂಬ ದುಬಾರಿ ಆಯ್ತು;
ತುಂಬ ತುಟ್ಟಿ ಆಯ್ತು;
tumba dubAri Aytu;
tumba tuTTi Aytu;
I don't want it! ನನಗ್ ಬೇಡ;nanag bEDa;
I want it. ನನಗ್ ಬೇಕು; nanag bEku;
I do want it! ನನಗ್ ಬೇಕೇ’ಬೇಕು;nanag bEkE'bEku;
Look out!
Watch out!
ಜೋಪಾನ!; ಜ್ವಾಪಾನ! jOpAna!; jwApAna!
I need your help ನಿಮ್ಮ್’ help ಬೇಕಾಗಿದೆ; nimm' HELP bEkAgide;
I don't know [ನನಗ್] ಗೊತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ; [nanag] gott'illa;
I know [ನನಗ್] ಗೊತ್ತು;[nanag] gottu;
Where do you work(singular)? [ನೀನ್] ಎಲ್ಲ್’ ಕೆಲಸ ಮಾಡ್’ತೀಯ? [nIn] ell' kelasa mAD'tIya?
Where do you work(plural, with respect)? [ನೀವ್] ಎಲ್ಲ್’ ಕೆಲಸ ಮಾಡ್’ತೀರ? [nIv] ell' kelasa mAD'tIra?
We will go to Mangalore. ನಾವ್ ಮಂಗಳೂರ್’ಗೆ ಹೋಗೋಣ; nAv mangaLUr'ge hOgONa;
Will this bus go to Udupi? ಈ Bus ಉಡುಪಿ’ಗೆ ಹೋಗತ್ತಾ? I BUS uDupi'ge hOgattA?
Where is this address located? ಈ Adress ಎಲ್ಲ್’ ಬರತ್ತೆ? I ADRESS ell' baratte?
OK, see you [next time] ಸರಿ, ಮತ್ತ್’ ಸಿಗೋಣ; sari, matt' sigONa;

short sentences[edit]

English Kannada Transliteration
Just a minuteಒಂದು ನಿಮಿಷond' nimiSha
Just comingಬಂದೆbande
Do you want some more?ಇನ್ನಷ್ಟು ಬೇಕಾ?inn'ashTu bEkA?
Do you need anything else?ಬೇರೆ ಏನಾದರೂ ಬೇಕಾ?bEre EnAdarU bEkA?
As you likeನಿಮ್ಮ ಇಷ್ಟ
ನಿಮ್ಮ ಇಷ್ಟದಂತೆ ಆಗಲಿ
nimma iShTa
nimma iShTadante Agali
(No thanks) Don't want anything moreಇನ್ನೇನೂ ಬೇಡinnEnU bEDa
(No thanks) Don't want anything elseಬೇರೇನೂ ಬೇಡbErEnU bEDa
Not at all!ಇಲ್ಲವೇ ಇಲ್ಲillavE illa
For ladies onlyಹೆಂಗಸರಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರhengasarige mAtra
ಗುor gents/gentlemen onlyಗಂಡಸರಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರgaNDasarige mAtra
To letಬಾಡಿಗೆಗೆbADigege
No admissionಪ್ರವೇಶವಿಲ್ಲpravESavilla
Don't talk!ಮಾತಾಡ ಬೇಡ್ರಿ
ಮಾತಾಡ’ಬಾರದು
ಮಾತನಾಡ ಬೇಡಿ
mAtADa bEDr
mATADa bAradu
mAtanADa bEDi
No smoking!ಸಿಗರೇಟ್ ಸೇದು’ಹಾಗಿಲ್ಲ
ಸಿಗರೇಟ್ ಸೇದ’ಬಾರದು
sigarET sEdu'hAgilla
sigarET sEda'bAradu
No spitting!ಉಗುಳು’ಹಾಗಿಲ್ಲ
ಉಗುಳ’ಬಾರದು
uguLu'hAgilla
uguLa'bAradu
No parking!ಗಾಡಿ ನಿಲ್ಲಿಸು’ಹಾಗಿಲ್ಲ
ವಾಹನ ನಿಲುಗಡೆಗೆ ಸ್ಥಳವಿಲ್ಲ
gADi nillisu'hAgilla
vAhana nilugaDege sthaLavilla
Exitಹೊರಕ್ಕೆhorakke
Entranceಒಳಕ್ಕೆoLakke

Interrogatives[edit]

English Kannada Transliteration
How/of what kind?ಎಂತಾ, ಎಂಥentA, entha
How/in what way?ಹ್ಯಾಂಗೆ, ಹ್ಯಾಗೆ, ಹೇಗೆ hyAnge, hyAge, hEge
How much?/How many?ಎಷ್ಟು, ಎಸ್ಟುeShTu, esTu
What?ಏನು, ಯೇನುEnu, yEnu
When?ಯಾವಾಗyAvAga
Where?ಎಲ್ಲಿ, ಯೆಲ್ಲಿelli, yelli
Who?, which of these(men)?ಯಾರುyAru
Which of these (things)?ಯಾವುದುyAvudu
Why?ಏಕೆ, ಯಾಕೆEke, yAke
What forಏನಕ್ಕೆ, ಯದಕ್ಕೆ Enakke, yadakke

Problems[edit]

English Kannada Transliteration
I am not feeling wellನನಗೆ ಮೈಯಲ್ಲಿ ಚೆನ್ನಾಗಿಲ್ಲnanage maiyalli cennAgilla
[For God's sake] Leave me alone!ನನ್ನ್’ಅಷ್ಟಕ್ಕೆ ನನಗೆ ಇರಾಕೆ ಬಿಟ್ಟುಬಿಡಿ,
ನನ್ನ್ ಪಾಡಿಗೆ ನನ್ನ ಇರೋದಕ್ಕೆ ಬಿಟ್ಟ್’ಬಿಡಿ
nann'aShTakke nanage irAke biTTubiDi,
nann pADige nanna irOdakke biTT'biDi
Leave me alone!ನನಗೆ ಒಬ್ಬಂಟಿಯಾಗಿ ಬಿಡಿnange obbaNTiyAgi biDi
Don't touch me!ನನ್ನ್’ಅನ್ನ ಮುಟ್ಟ ಬೇಡ nann'anna muTTa bEda
I'll call the police!ಪೋಲೀಸ್’ಗೆ ಕರೀತೀನಿpOlIs'ge karItIni
Stop! Thief!ಏಯ್! ನಿಲ್ಲು, ಕಳ್ಳ! ಕಳ್ಳ! Ey! nillu, kaLLa! kaLLa!
Thief! Thief! Catch him!ಕಳ್ಳ! ಕಳ್ಳ! ಹಿಡೀರಿ ...elli, yelli
I need your help!ನಿಮ್ಮಿಂದ ಒಂದು ಸಹಾಯ [/help] ಆಗಬೇಕುnimm'inda ondu sahAya/HELP AgabEku
I'm lost!ನಾ ದಾರಿ ತಪ್ಪಿದ್ದೀನಿ, ನನಗೆ ರಸ್ತೆ ಮರೆತು ಹೋಯಿತುnA dAri tappiddIni, nanage raste maretu hOyitu
I lost my bagನನ್ನ ಬ್ಯಾಗ್ ಕಳೆದು ಹೋಯಿತು nanna byAg kaLedu hOyitu
I lost my walletನನ್ನ ವ್ಯಾಲೆಟ್ ಕಳೆದು ಹೋಯಿತು nanna vyAleT kaLedu hOyitu
I'm sickನನಗೆ ಹುಷಾರಿಲ್ಲ,
ನನಗೆ ಆರಾಮಿಲ್ಲ
nanage huShArilla,
nanage ArAmilla
I've been injuredನನಗೆ ಪೆಟ್ಟು ಬಿದ್ದಿದೆ
ನನಗ್ ಏಟು[/ಹೊಡೆತ] ಬಿದ್ದು ಗಾಯ’ಆಗಿದೆ
nange peTTu biddide
nanag ETu[/hoDeta] biddu gAya'Agide
I need a doctorನಾನು ಡಾಕ್ಟರ್’ಅನ್ನ ಕಾಣಬೇಕು
ನನಗ್ ಒಬ್ಬ್ DOCTOR ಬೇಕು
nAnu DAkTar'anna kANabEku,
nanag obba /*DOCTOR*/ bEku
Can I use your phone?ನಾ [ನಿಮ್ಮಲ್ಲಿಂದ] ಒಂದು ಕಾಲ್ ಮಾಡ್’ಲ,
ನಾ ಒಂದು ಫೋನ್ ಮಾಡ್’ಲ
nA [nimmallinda] ondu kAl mAD'la, nA ondu phOn mAD'la

Medical Emergency[edit]

English Kannada Transliteration
I need a doctor. ನನಗ್ ಒಬ್ಬ್ DOCTOR ಬೇಕು
ನಾನ್ ಯಾರ್’ಆದ್ರೂ ಒಬ್ಬ್ ಡಾಕ್ಟರ್’ಅನ್ನ ಕಾಣ್’ಬೇಕು
nanag obb DOCTOR bEku
nAn yAr'AdrU obb DAkTar'anna kAN'bEku
Is there a doctor who can speak English? ಇಂಗ್ಲೀಶ್ ಗೊತ್ತಿರೋ ಯಾರ್’ಆದ್ರೂDOCTOR ಇದಾರ?
ಇಂಗ್ಲೀಶ್’ನಲ್ಲಿ ಮಾತಾಡೋ ಯಾರ್’ಆದ್ರೂ DOCTOR ಸಿಗ್ತಾರ?
inglIsh gottirO yAr'AdrUDOCTOR idaara?
inglIS'nalli mAtADO yAr'AdrU DOCTOR sigtaara?
My wife/husband/child is sick. ನನ್ನ್ ಹೆಣ್ತಿಗೆ/ಗಂಡಂಗೆ/ಮಗೂಗೆ ಹುಷಾರಿಲ್ಲnann heNtige/gaNDange/magUge huShArilla
Please call an ambulance. ಒಂದ್ AMBULANCE’ಅನ್ನ ಕರೀರಿond AMBULANCE'anna karIri
I need first aid. ನನಗ್ FIRST AID ಚಿಕಿತ್ಸೆ ಬೇಕು
ನನಗ್ ಮೊದಲ್’ನೇ ಚಿಕಿತ್ಸೆ ಕೊಡಿ
ನನಗ್ ಮೊದಲ್’ನೇ ಆರೈಕೆ ಬೇಕು
nanag FIRST AID cikitse bEku
nanag modal'nE cikitse koDi
nanag modal'nE Araike bEku
I need to go to the emergency room. ನಾನ್ EMERGENCY WARD’ಗೆ ಹೋಗ್’ಬೇಕುnAn EMERGENCY WARD'ge hOg'bEku
How long will it take to get better? ವಾಸಿ ಆಗೋದಕ್ಕೆ ಎಷ್ಟ್’ದಿವಸ ಬೇಕು?vAsi AgOdakke eShT'divasa bEku?
Where is a pharmacy? MEDICAL SHOP ಎಲ್ಲಿದೆ?MEDICAL SHOP ellide?
I'm allergic to aspirin. ನನಗ್ ASPIRIN ಮಾತ್ರೆ ಒಗ್ಗದುnanag ASPIRIN mAtre oggadu
I'm allergic to penicillin. ನನಗ್ PENICILLIN ಮಾತ್ರೆ ಒಗ್ಗದುnanag PENICILLIN mAtre oggadu
I'm allergic to antibotics. ನನಗ್ ANTIBIOTICS ಔಶ್ದಿ ಒಗ್ಗದುnanag ANTIBIOTICS aushdi oggadu
I'm allergic to dust. ನನಗ್ ಧೂಳು ಒಗ್ಗದುnanag dhULu aushdi oggadu
I'm allergic to pollen. ನನಗ್ ಹೂವಿನ ಪರಾಗ ಒಗ್ಗದುnanag hUvina parAga oggadu
I'm allergic to peanuts. ನನಗ್ ಕಡಲೇಬೀಜ ಒಗ್ಗದು
ನನಗ್ ಕಡಲೇ ಬೀಜ ತಿಂದ್’ರೆ ಅಲರ್ಜಿ
nanag kaDalEbIja oggadu
nanag kaDalE bIja tind're alarji
I'm allergic to dairy products. ನನಗ್ ಹಾಲಿನ ಪದಾರ್ಥ ಒಗ್ಗದು
ನನಗ್ ಹಾಲಿನ ಪದಾರ್ಥ ತಿಂದ್’ರೆ ಅಲರ್ಜಿ
nanag hAlina padArtha oggadu
nanag hAlina padArtha tind're alarji
I'm allergic to mushrooms. ನನಗ್ ಅಣಬೆ ಒಗ್ಗದು
ನನಗ್ ಅಣಬೆ ತಿಂದ್’ರೆ ಅಲರ್ಜಿ
nanag aNabe oggadu
nanag aNabe tind're alarji
I'm allergic to wheat. ನನಗ್ ಗೋಧಿ ಅಡುಗೆ ಒಗ್ಗದು
ನನಗ್ ಗೋಧಿ [ಚಪಾತಿ/ಬ್ರೆಡ್ಡು] ತಿಂದ್’ರೆ ಅಲರ್ಜಿ
nanag gOdhi aDuge oggadu
nanag gOdhi [capAti/breDDu] tind're alarji
I'm allergic to sesame. ನನಗ್ ಎಳ್ಳು ಒಗ್ಗದು
ನನಗ್ ಎಳ್ಳು ತಿಂದ್’ರೆ ಅಲರ್ಜಿ
nanag eLLu oggadu
nanag eLLu tind're alarji
I'm allergic to seafood(fish). ನನಗ್ ಮೀನು ಒಗ್ಗದು
ನನಗ್ ಮೀನು ತಿಂದ್’ರೆ ಅಲರ್ಜಿ
nanag mInu oggadu
nanag mInu tind're alarji

Explaining symptoms[edit]

Body parts

head 
tale ”ತಲೆ”
face
muka ”ಮುಕ”
eyes
kaNNu”ಕಣ್ಣು”
nose
mUgu”ಮೂಗು”
throat
gaNTalu ”ಗಂಟಲು”
chin
gadda ”ಗದ್ದ”
neck 
kuttige ”ಕುತ್ತಿಗೆ”
shoulder
hegalu ”ಹೆಗಲು”
chest
ede”ಎದೆ”
waist
soNTa”ಸೊಂಟ”
arms
tOLu”ತೋಳು”
wrist
maNi kaTTu”ಮಣಿ ಕಟ್ಟು”
fingers
beraLu”ಬೆರಳು”
hand
kai”ಕೈ”
palm
angai”ಅಂಗೈ”
elbow
moNakai”ಮೊಣಕೈ”
buttocks
Asana”ಆಸನ”
thigh
toDe”ತೊಡೆ”
knee
moNakAlu”ಮೊಣಕಾಲು”
legs
kAlu”ಕಾಲು”
foot
angAlu”ಅಂಗಾಲು”
English Transcribed Kannada
I feel pain in ... . : ... all nOvu.” ... ಅಲ್ಲ್ ನೋವು.”
head ache tale nOvu” ತಲೆ ನೋವು”
stomach ache hoTTE nOvu ”ಹೊಟ್ಟೆ ನೋವು”
stomach crampshoTTe murita ”ಹೊಟ್ಟೆ ಮುರಿತ”
loose motionhoTTe kaLata ”ಹೊಟ್ಟೆ ಕಳತ”
body achesmai-kai nOvu ”ಮೈ-ಕೈ ನೋವು”
Feeling unwell ArOgya[-bhAgya] sariyilla ”ಆರೋಗ್ಯ[-ಭಾಗ್ಯ] ಸರಿಯಿಲ್ಲ”
Having a fever jvara ide
jvara bandide
”ಜ್ವರ ಇದೆ”
”ಜ್ವರ ಬಂದಿದೆ”
Coughing a lot. :kemmu hattide ”ಕೆಮ್ಮು ಹತ್ತಿದೆ”
Feeling listless [mai-kai] sustu ide”[ಮೈ-ಕೈ’ಅಲ್ಲ್] ಸುಸ್ತು ಇದೆ”
Feeling nauseated vAkarike barta ide ”ವಾಕರಿಕೆ ಬರ್ತಾ ಇದೆ”
Feeling dizzy tale suttu[tta] ide
tale tirugtaa ide
”ತಲೆ ಸುತ್ತು[ತ್ತ] ಇದೆ”
”ತಲೆ ತಿರುಗ್ತಾ ಇದೆ”
Having the chills naDuka ide
mai-kai naDuka
”ನಡುಕ ಇದೆ”
”ಮೈ-ಕೈ ನಡುಕ”
Swallowed something EnO nungidIni ”ಏನೋ ನುಂಗಿದೀನಿ”
Bleeding rakta sOrtaa ide ”ರಕ್ತ ಸೋರ್ತಾ ಇದೆ”
Broken bone mULe muridide ”ಮೂಳೆ ಮುರಿದಿದೆ”
sprain in my legskAlu uLukide ”ಕಾಲು ಉಳುಕಿದೆ”
He/she is unconscious eccara tappiddAne ”ಎಚ್ಚರ ತಪ್ಪಿದ್ದಾನೆ”
Burned suTTide ”ಸುಟ್ಟಿದೆ”
Trouble breathing usirATadalli tond're ide ”ಉಸಿರಾಟದಲ್ಲಿ ತೊಂದ್’ರೆ ಇದೆ”
Heart attack HEART ATTACK
ede nOvu
”HEART ATTACK”
ಎದೆ ನೋವು
Vision worsened. (cannot see well) kaNNu [sariyAgi] kANtilla
kaNN[ige] kANistilla
”ಕಣ್ಣು [ಸರಿಯಾಗಿ] ಕಾಣ್ತಿಲ್ಲ”
”ಕಣ್ಣ್[ಇಗೆ] ಕಾಣಿಸ್ತಿಲ್ಲ”
Cannot hear well kivi kEListilla
kivi[ge] sariyAgi kELtilla
”ಕಿವಿ ಕೇಳಿಸ್ತಿಲ್ಲ”
”ಕಿವಿ[ಗೆ] ಸರಿಯಾಗಿ ಕೇಳ್ತಿಲ್ಲ”
Nose bleeds a lotmUginalli rakta sOrtide ”ಮೂಗಿನಲ್ಲಿ ರಕ್ತ ಸೋರ್ತಿದೆ”

Numbers[edit]

The numerals used to write in decimal are called Indo-Arabic numerals. Developed in India, they were borrowed by the Arabs, and gradually spread to Europe. The similarities are hard to miss. Here are their respective numerals.

English Numeral Kannada Numeral Kannada Transliteration
0ಸೊನ್ನೆsonne
1ಒಂದುondu
2ಎರಡುeraDu
3ಮೂರುmUru
4ನಾಲ್ಕುnAlku
5ಐದು, ಅಯ್ದುaidu, aydu
6ಆರುAaru
7 ಏಳುELu
8 ಎಂಟುeNTu
9 ಒಂಬತ್ತುombattu
10 ೧೦ಹತ್ತುhattu
Numeral Kannada Transliteration
11ಹನ್ನ್’ಒಂದು, ಹನ್ನೊಂದುhannondu21ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಒಂದು, ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತೊಂದುippattondu31ಮುವತ್ತ್’ಒಂದು, ಮುವತ್ತೊಂದುmuvattondu
12ಹನ್ನ್’ಎರಡು, ಹನ್ನೆರಡುhanneraDu22ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಎರಡು, ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತೆರಡುippatteraDu32ಮುವತ್ತ್’ಎರಡು, ಮುವತ್ತೆರಡುmuvatteraDu
13ಹದಿ’ಮೂರು, ಹದಿಮೂರುhadimUru23ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಮೂರು, ಇಪ್ಪತ್ಮೂರುippatmUru33ಮುವತ್ತ್’ಮೂರು, ಮುವತ್ಮೂರುmuvatmUru
14ಹದಿ’ನಾಲ್ಕು, ಹದಿನಾಲ್ಕುhadinAlku24ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ನಾಲ್ಕು, ಇಪ್ಪತ್ನಾಲ್ಕುippatnAlku34ಮೂವತ್ತ್’ನಾಲ್ಕು, ಮೂವತ್ನಾಲ್ಕುmUvatnAlku
15ಹದಿ’ನೈದು, ಹದಿನೈದುhadinaidu25ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಐದು, ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತೈದುippattaidu35ಮೂವತ್ತ್’ಐದು, ಮೂವತ್ತೈದುmUvattaidu
16ಹದಿ’ನಾರು, ಹದಿನಾರುhadinAaru26ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಆರು, ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತಾರುippattAru36ಮೂವತ್ತ್’ಆರು, ಮೂವತ್ತಾರುmUvattAaru
17ಹದಿ’ನೇಳು, ಹದಿನೇಳುhadinELu27ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಏಳು, ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತೇಳುippattELu37ಮೂವತ್ತ್’ಏಳು, ಮೂವತ್ತೇಳುmUvattELu
18ಹದಿ’ನೆಂಟು, ಹದಿನೆಂಟುhadineNTu28ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಎಂಟು, ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತೆಂಟುippatteNTu38ಮೂವತ್ತ್’ಎಂಟು, ಮೂವತ್ತೆಂಟುmUvatteNTu
19ಹತ್ತ್’ಒಂಬತ್ತು, ಹತ್ತೊಂಬತ್ತುhattombattu29ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಒಂಬತ್ತು, ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತೊಂಬತ್ತುippattombattu39ಮೂವತ್ತ್’ಒಂಬತ್ತು, ಮೂವತ್ತೊಂಬತ್ತುmUvattombattu
41ನಲವತ್ತ್’ಒಂದು, ನಲವತ್ತೊಂದುnalavattondu51ಐವತ್ತ್’ಒಂದು, ಐವತ್ತೊಂದುaivattondu61ಅರವತ್ತ್’ಒಂದು, ಅರವತ್ತೊಂದುaravattondu
42ನಲವತ್ತ್’ಎರಡು, ನಲವತ್ತೆರಡುnalavatteraDu52ಐವತ್ತ್’ಎರಡು, ಐವತ್ತೆರಡುaivatteraDu62ಅರವತ್ತ್’ಎರಡು, ಅರವತ್ತೆರಡುaravatteraDu
43ನಲವತ್ತ್’ಮೂರು, ನಲವತ್ಮೂರುnalavatmUru53ಐವತ್ತ್’ಮೂರು, ಐವತ್ಮೂರುaivatmUru63ಅರವತ್ತ್’ಮೂರು, ಅರವತ್ಮೂರುaravatmUru
44ನಲವತ್ತ್’ನಾಲ್ಕು, ನಲವತ್ನಾಲ್ಕುnalavatnAlku54ಐವತ್ತ್’ನಾಲ್ಕು, ಐವತ್ನಾಲ್ಕುaivatnAlku64ಅರವತ್ತ್’ನಾಲ್ಕು, ಅರವತ್ನಾಲ್ಕುaravatnAlku
45ನಲವತ್ತ್’ಐದು, ನಲವತ್ತೈದುnalavattaidu55ಐವತ್ತ್’ಐದು, ಐವತ್ತೈದುaivattaidu65ಅರವತ್ತ್’ಐದು, ಅರವತ್ತೈದುaravattaidu
46ನಲವತ್ತ್’ಆರು, ನಲವತ್ತಾರುnalavattAaru56ಐವತ್ತ್’ಆರು, ಐವತ್ತಾರುaivattAaru66ಅರವತ್ತ್’ಆರು, ಅರವತ್ತಾರುaravattAaru
47ನಲವತ್ತ್’ಏಳು, ನಲವತ್ತೇಳುnalavattELu57ಐವತ್ತ್’ಏಳು, ಐವತ್ತೇಳುaivattELu77ಅರವತ್ತ್’ಏಳು, ಅರವತ್ತೇಳುaravattELu
48ನಲವತ್ತ್’ಎಂಟು, ನಲವತ್ತೆಂಟುnalavatteNTu58ಐವತ್ತ್’ಎಂಟು, ಐವತ್ತೆಂಟುaivatteNTu68ಅರವತ್ತ್’ಎಂಟು, ಅರವತ್ತೆಂಟುaravatteNTu
49ನಲವತ್ತ್’ಒಂಬತ್ತು, ನಲವತ್ತೊಂಬತ್ತುnalavattombattu59ಐವತ್ತ್’ಒಂಬತ್ತು, ಐವತ್ತೊಂಬತ್ತುaivattombattu69ಅರವತ್ತ್’ಒಂಬತ್ತು, ಅರವತ್ತೊಂಬತ್ತುaravattombattu
71ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಒಂದು, ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತೊಂದುeppattondu81ಎಂಬತ್ತ್’ಒಂದು, ಎಂಬತ್ತೊಂದುembattondu91ತೊಂಬತ್ತ್’ಒಂದು, ತೊಂಬತ್ತೊಂದುtombattondu
72ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಎರಡು, ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತೆರಡುeppatteraDu82ಎಂಬತ್ತ್’ಎರಡು, ಎಂಬತ್ತೆರಡುembatteraDu92ತೊಂಬತ್ತ್’ಎರಡು, ತೊಂಬತ್ತೆರಡುtombatteraDu
73ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಮೂರು, ಎಪ್ಪತ್ಮೂರುeppatmUru83ಎಂಬತ್ತ್’ಮೂರು, ಎಂಬತ್ಮೂರುembatmUru93ತೊಂಬತ್ತ್’ಮೂರು, ತೊಂಬತ್ಮೂರುtombatmUru
74ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ನಾಲ್ಕು, ಎಪ್ಪತ್ನಾಲ್ಕುeppatnAlku84ಎಂಬತ್ತ್’ನಾಲ್ಕು, ಎಂಬತ್ನಾಲ್ಕುembatnAlku94ತೊಂಬತ್ತ್’ನಾಲ್ಕು, ತೊಂಬತ್ನಾಲ್ಕುtombatnAlku
75ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಐದು, ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತೈದುeppattaidu85ಎಂಬತ್ತ್’ಐದು, ಎಂಬತ್ತೈದುembattaidu95ತೊಂಬತ್ತ್’ಐದು, ತೊಂಬತ್ತೈದುtombattaidu
76ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಆರು, ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತಾರುeppattAaru86ಎಂಬತ್ತ್’ಆರು, ಎಂಬತ್ತಾರುembattAaru96ತೊಂಬತ್ತ್’ಆರು, ತೊಂಬತ್ತಾರುtombattAaru
77ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಏಳು, ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತೇಳುeppattELu87ಎಂಬತ್ತ್’ಏಳು, ಎಂಬತ್ತೇಳುembattELu97ತೊಂಬತ್ತ್’ಏಳು, ತೊಂಬತ್ತೇಳುtombattELu
78ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಎಂಟು, ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತೆಂಟುeppatteNTu88ಎಂಬತ್ತ್’ಎಂಟು, ಎಂಬತ್ತೆಂಟುembatteNTu98ತೊಂಬತ್ತ್’ಎಂಟು, ತೊಂಬತ್ತೆಂಟುtombatteNTu
79ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತ್’ಒಂಬತ್ತು, ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತೊಂಬತ್ತುeppattombattu89ಎಂಬತ್ತ್’ಒಂಬತ್ತು, ಎಂಬತ್ತೊಂಬತ್ತುembattombattu99ತೊಂಬತ್ತ್’ಒಂಬತ್ತು, ತೊಂಬತ್ತೊಂಬತ್ತುtombattombattu
Numeral Kannada Transliteration
100ನೂರುnUru
200ಇನ್ನೂರು, ಎರಡು ನೂರುinnUru, eraDu nUru
300ಮುನ್ನೂರು, ಮೂರು ನೂರುmunnUru, mUru nUru
400ನಾನ್ನೂರು, ನಾಲ್ಕು ನೂರುnAnnUru, nAlku nUru
500ಐನೂರು, ಅಯ್ನೂರು, ಐದು ನೂರು, ಅಯ್ದು ನೂರುainUru, aynUru, aidu nUru, aydu nUru
600ಆರ್’ನೂರು, ಆರು ನೂರುAar'nUru, Aaru nUru
700ಏಳ್’ನೂರು, ಏಳು ನೂರುEL'nUru, ELu nUru
800ಎಂಟ್ನೂರು, ಎಂಟು ನೂರುeNTnUru, eNTu nUru
900ಒಂಬೈನೂರು, ಒಂಬಯ್ನೂರು, ಒಂಬತ್ತು ನೂರುombainUru, ombaynUru, ombattu nUru
1000ಸಾವಿರ, ಒಂದು ಸಾವಿರsAvira, ondu sAvira
2000ಎರಡು ಸಾವಿರeraDu sAvira
3000ಮೂರು ಸಾವಿರmUru sAvira
10,000ಒಂದು ಲಕ್ಷondu lakSha
100,000ಒಂದು ಕೋಟಿondu kOTi
1,000,000ಮಿಲಿಯನ್’ಉ, ಮಿಲಿಯನ್ನುmillion'u
1,000,000,000ಬಿಲಿಯನ್’ಉ, ಬಿಲಿಯನ್ನುbillion'u
1,000,000,000,000ಟ್ರಿಲಿಯನ್’ಉ, ಟ್ರಿಲಿಯನ್ನುTrillion'u
1 halfಅರ್ಧardha
lessಕಡಿಮೆkaDime
moreಜಾಸ್ತಿ, ಹೆಚ್ಚುjAsti, heccu
number _____ (train, bus, etc.)...nambar _____

Ordinals[edit]

English Kannada Kannada Transliteration
1st೧ನೇಒಂದನೇ, ಮೊದಲನೇond'anE, modal'anE
2nd೨ನೇಎರಡನೇeraD'anE
3rd೩ನೇಮೂರನೇmUr'anE
4th೪ನೇನಾಲ್ಕನೇnAlk'anE
5th೫ನೇಐದನೇaida'anE
6th೬ನೇಆರನೇAr'anE
7th೭ನೇಏಳನೇEL'anE
8th೮ನೇಎಂಟನೇeNT'anE
9th೯ನೇಒಂಬತ್ತನೇombatt'anE
10th೧೦ನೇಹತ್ತನೇhatt'anE
11th೧೧ನೇಹನ್ನೊಂದನೇhannond'anE

Multiplication[edit]

English Kannada Transliteration
twofoldಎರಡರಷ್ಟುeraDar'aShTu
threefoldಮೂರರಷ್ಟುmUrar'aShTu
fourfoldನಾಲ್ಕರಷ್ಟುnAlkar'aShTu
fivefoldಐದರಷ್ಟುaidar'aShTu
sixfoldಆರರಷ್ಟುArar'aShTu
sevenfoldಏಳರಷ್ಟುELar'aShTu
eightfoldಎಂಟರಷ್ಟುeNTar'aShTu
ninefoldಒಂಬತ್ತರಷ್ಟುombattar'aShTu
tenfoldಹತ್ತರಷ್ಟುhattar'aShTu
hundredfoldನೂರರಷ್ಟುnUrar'aShTu

Frequency[edit]

English Kannada Transliteration
Onceಒಂದು ಸಲ
ಒಂದು ಸಾರಿ
ond'sala
ond'sAri
twiceಎರಡು ಸಲ
ಎರಡು ಸಾರಿ
eraDu sala
eraDu sAri
thriceಮೂರು ಸಲ
ಮೂರು ಸಾರಿ
mUru sala
mUru sAri
four timeನಾಲ್ಕು ಸಲ
ನಾಲ್ಕು ಸಾರಿ
nAlku sala
nAlku sAri
five timeಐದು ಸಲ
ಐದು ಸಾರಿ
aidu sala
aidu sAri
everytimeಪ್ರತಿ ಸಲ
ಪ್ರತಿ ಸಾರಿ
ಯಾವಾಗಲು
prati sala
prati sAri
yAvAgalu
sometimesಒಂದೊಂದು ಸಲ
ಒಂದೊಂದು ಸಾರಿ
ಒಮ್ಮೊಮ್ಮೆ
ondondu sala
ondondu sAri
ommomme
oftenಹಗಲೆಲ್ಲ
ಮೇಲಿಂದ್’ಮೇಲೆ
ಆಗಾಗ್ಗೆ
hagalella
mElind'mEle
AgAgge
Many a timesಹಲವು ಸಲ
ಹಲವು ಸಾರಿ
ಹಲವೊಮ್ಮೆ
halavu sala
halavu sAri
halavomme,
fewtimesಕೆಲವು ಸಲ
ಕೆಲವು ಸಾರಿ
ಕೆಲವೊಮ್ಮೆ
kelavu sala
kelavu sAri
kelavomme
dailyಪ್ರತಿ ದಿನ
ದಿನಾಲು
ದಿನಾಗಲು
prati dina
dinAlu
dinAgalu
weeklyಪ್ರತಿ ವಾರ
ವಾರಕ್ಕೊಮ್ಮೆ
ವಾರಕ್ಕೆ ಒಂದು ಸಲ
prati vAra
vArakkomme
vArakke ondu sala
monthlyಪ್ರತಿ ತಿಂಗಳು
ತಿಂಗಳಿಗೊಮ್ಮೆ
ತಿಂಗಳಿಗೆ ಒಂದು ಸಲ
prati tingaLu
tingaLigomme
tingaLige ondu sala
yearlyಪ್ರತಿ ವರ್ಷ
ವರ್ಷಕ್ಕೊಮ್ಮೆ
ವರ್ಷಕ್ಕೆ ಒಂದು ಸಲ
prati varSha
varShakkomme
varShakke ondu sala

Aggregation[edit]

English Kannada Transliteration
both (persons)ಇಬ್ಬರುibbaru
both (things)ಎರಡೂeraDU
all three (persons)ಮೂರೂ ಮಂದಿ
ಮೂರು ಜನ
mUrU mandi
mUru jana
all four (things)ನಾಲ್ಕೂ ಮಂದಿ
ನಾಲ್ಕೂ ಜನ
nAlkU mandi
nAlkU jana
all ten (persons)ಹತ್ತು ಮಂದಿ
ಎಲ್ಲ ಹತ್ತು ಜನ
hattu mandi
allಎಲ್ಲella
hundreds ofನೂರಾರುnUrAru
thousands ofಸಾವಿರಾರುsAvirAru
lakhs (hundreds of thousands) ofಲಕ್ಷಾನು’ಗಟ್ಟಲೆ
ಲಕ್ಷಾನು’ಲಕ್ಷ
lakShAnu gaTTale
lakShAnu'lakSha
crores (tens of millions) ofಕೋಟ್ಯಾನು’ಗಟ್ಟಲೆ
ಕೋಟ್ಯಾನು’ಕೋಟಿ
kOTyAnu gaTTale
kOTyAnu'kOTi

Time[edit]

English Kannada Transliteration
nowಈಗಳೇ, ಈಗ, ಈಗಲೇIgaLe, Iga, IgalE
laterಆಮೇಲೆAmEle
beforeಮೊದಲುmodalu
morningಬೆಳಗಿನ ಜಾವ, ಮುಂಜಾನೆ, ಬೆಳಿಗ್ಗೆbeLagina jAva, munjAne, beLigge
afternoonಮದ್ಯಾನ್ನmadyAnna
eveningಸಂಜೆ, ಸಾಯಂಕಾಲsanje, sAyankAla
nightರಾತ್ರೆ, ರಾತ್ರಿrAtre, rAtri

Clock time[edit]

English Kannada Transliteration
one o'clock AMಒಂದು ಗಂಟೆ ರಾತ್ರಿOndu gaNTe rAtri
two o'clock AMಎರಡು ಗಂಟೆ ರಾತ್ರಿeraDu gaNTe rAtri
noonಮದ್ಯಾನ್ನದ ಹೊತ್ತುmadyAnnada hottu
one o'clock PMಮದ್ಯಾನ್ನ ಒಂದು ಗಂಟೆmadyAnna ondu gaNTe
two o'clock PMಮದ್ಯಾನ್ನ ಎರಡು ಗಂಟೆmadyAnna eraDu gaNTe
midnightನಡು ರಾತ್ರೆ, ಮದ್ಯ ರಾತ್ರಿnaDu rAtre, madya rAtri
at nightರಾತ್ರೆ ಹೊತ್ತು, ರಾತ್ರಿ ಹೊತ್ತುrAtre hottu, rAtri hottu
during day timeಬೆಳಗಿನ ಹೊತ್ತು, ಬೆಳಿಗ್ಗೆbeLagina hottu, beLigge

Duration[edit]

English Kannada Transliteration
minute(s)ನಿಮಿಷnimiSha
hour(s) ಗಂಟೆ gaNTe
day(s)ದಿಸ, ದಿವಸ, ದಿನ disa, divasa, dina
week(s)ವಾರ vAra
month(s)ತಿಂಗಳುtingaLu
year(s) ವರ್ಷvarSha

Days[edit]

English Kannada Transliteration
Todayಇವತ್ತುivattu
Yesterdayನಿನ್ನೆninne
TomorrowನಾಳೆnALe
Day before yesterdayಮೊನ್ನೆmonne
Day after tomorrowನಾಡಿದ್ದುnADiddu
WeekವಾರvAra
This weekಈ ವಾರI vAra
Last weekಕಡೇ ವಾರ
ಹೋದ ವಾರ
ಕಳೆದ ವಾರ
kaDE vAra
hOda vAra
kaLeda vAra
Next weekಬರೋ ವಾರ
ಮುಂದಿನ ವಾರ
barO vAra
mundina vAra
Two weeksಎರಡು ವಾರeraDu vAra
MonthತಿಂಗಳುtingaLu


The Hindu days of the week are each ruled by a planet, and corresponding exactly to ancient cultures in the West, i.e. Sunday = bhānu-vāra (Lord Sun's day [lit. time or period]). Thursday/O.N. Þorsdagr, Thor's day = Guru-vāra (Lord Jupiter's day), Saturday/Saturn's day = Śani's day = Shani-vāra(Lord Saturn's day), etc.

Day Kannada Transliteration
Sundayಭಾನುವಾರ bhAnu-vAra (Sun's Day)
MondayಸೋಮವಾರsOma-vAra (Moon's Day)
TuesdayಮಂಗಳವಾರmangaLa-vAra (Mars's Day)
Wednesdayಬುಧವಾರbudha-vAra (Mercury's Day)
Thursdayಗುರುವಾರ

Kannada phrasebook

Kannada 

By Irene Thompson | Updated November 15, 2016 by Irene Thompson

Svaagata- Welcome

Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ), also known as Kanarese, or Canarese, belongs to the Southern branch of the Dravidian language family. It is spoken as a first language by 38 million people and as a second language by another 9 million people in southern India, primarily in the state of Karnataka. It is also spoken in the neighboring states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra. It is estimated that world-wide it is spoken by upward of 44 million people, including those who speak it as a second language (Ethnologue).


Kannada is one of the 22 official languages and 14 regional languages of India. Official interstate communication is conducted in Hindi, and English still plays a dominant role in education, particularly at the university level.

Dialects

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Spoken vs. written
There is a considerable difference between the spoken and written forms of the language with regard to its phonology, grammar, and lexicon. Spoken Kannada has many regional dialects, while the written form remains relatively uniform.

Regional
There are about 20 spoken dialects of Kannada (Ethnologue). They are usually grouped into three major groups: Northern, Southern, and Central. All the dialects are influenced by the neighboring languages such as Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, and others.

Social
There are also a number of social varieties depending on caste or class.  Colloquial Kannada has three dialects based on social class: Brahmin, non-Brahmin, and Untouchable. The standard, or prestigious, variety is based on the middle-class, educated Brahmin dialect of the Mysore-Bangalore area.

Structure

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The sound system of Kannada is similar to that of other Dravidian languages.

Vowels
The Mysore dialect of Kannada has 15 vowel phonemes, i.e., sounds that make a difference in word meaning, All but one vowel (/ə/) can be short or long. Vowel length makes a difference in word meaning. In addition, there are two diphthongs: /ai/ and /au/.

  • /ɛ/ =in bed
  • /ə/ = a in about
  • /ɔ/ = o in bog

 

Consonants
Mysore Kannada has a large number of consonant phonemes, i.e., sounds that make a difference in word meaning. The consonant system is characterized by the fact that besides a Dravidian inventory, it includes a number of features typical of Indo-Aryan languages. Below are some of the typical features:

  • a contrast between apical and retroflex consonants, e.g., /ṱ/ – /ʈ/. Apical consonants are produced with the tip of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth, whereas retroflex consonants are produced with the tongue curled, so that its underside comes in contact with the roof of the mouth;
  • a contrast between plain and aspirated stops;
  • limited occurrence of consonant clusters in final position.
  • gemination, or doubling, of consonants. (doubled).
  • /ʈ, ɖ, ɳ, ʂ, ɭ, ɻ/ are retroflex consonants with no equivalents in English
  • /ṱ, ḓ, ṋ, ḽ / are pronounced with the tip of the tongue touching the back of the front teeth
  • ʃ = sh in shop
  • /tʃ/ = ch in chop
  • *z occurs only in borrowed words
  • /dʒ/ = j in job
  • /ɲ/ = first n in canyon
  • /ŋ/ = ng in song
  • /ʋ/ has no equivalent in English
  • /j/ = y in yet

 

Kannada is a highly inflected language with a grammar that is similar to that of Tamil. Like other Dravidian languages, it is agglutinative, which means that suffixes are added to stems to derive new words and to express various grammatical relationships. This can result in very long words such as Shivatatvaratnakara, the name of the world’s first encyclopedia. Kannada uses postpositions that are added to the end of noun phrases, usually after a case marker, to indicate time, location, instrumentality, and so forth. Postpositions are similar in function and meaning to prepositions in other languages

Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, numerals
This class of words includes common nouns, proper names, pronouns and adjectives. They are inflected for the following categories:

  • two genders: rational and irrational; rational nouns include men and deities; irrational nouns include women, animals, objects, and everthing else.
  • two numbers: singular and plural; singular is unmarked, the plural is marked by the suffix -gɭu, e.g., mane ‘house’ and manegɭu ‘houses’.
  • seven cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, instrumental, and vocative.
  • special pronouns for indicating politeness
  • contrast between proximate and remote demonstrative pronouns
  • Personal pronouns are marked for person, case and number. Gender is marked only in the third person singular.
  • Adjectives share properties with nouns. Some linguists think that they do not constitute a separate word class.
  • Numerals 1-5 are marked for gender.

 

Verbs
Kannada verbs have the following properties. 

  • Verbs agree with their subjects in person, number, and gender.
  • Subject pronouns are often deleted because person, number, and gender information is carried by the verb.
  • Verbs consist of a verb stem + tense marker + person/number/gender marker, e.g., hoog ‘go’ + –tt– ‘present tense’ + –iini ‘;1st person singular’ =hoogtiini ‘I go.’
  • Person, number, and gender markers have different forms, depending on the tense.
  • Verbs occur in two forms: finite (imperative, present and past forms, modals, and verbal nouns) which are marked for person, number and gender, and non-finite (infinitives, participles, and verb stems). Finite forms can stand alone, but non-finite forms cannot.
  • Imperatives have various levels of politeness or deference towards the addressee, e.g., impolite, casual, polite, very polite, extremely polite. Optative imperative (Let him go!) and hortative imperative (Let’s go!) have special forms.
  • The future tense is no longer used in spoken Kannada.
  • There are several modal auxiliary verbs (may, must, could, should, etc.) that are attached to the infinitive.
  • Variety of aspect markers add nuances to the basic meaning of the verb, such as relative sequence of two or more actions, completeness, duration, speaker’s attitude towards the action expressed by the verb, etc.
  • Causative verbs are formed from intransitive stems by adding the suffix -(i)su, e.g., kali ‘learn’ + –(i)su = kalisu ‘teach.’
  • There is a special conditional form.

 

Word order
The standard word order in Kannada is Subject-Object-Verb. However, other orders are possible because Inflectional endings take care of keeping clear grammatical relations and roles in the sentence. There are special markers for topic (what the sentence is about, or old information) and focus (new information). Constituents with old information precede constituents with new information, or those that carry most emphasis. Omission of the subject is common since the verb agrees with the subject in person and number. Modifiers usually precede the words they modify.

Kannada’s vocabulary is Dravidian in nature. Like other Dravidian languages, Kannada uses compounding and reduplication to form new words. Along with Telugu, it has been influenced by Sanskrit, Portuguese, and English.

Below are some basic words and phrases in Kannada.

HelloHalō, ಹಲೋ
GoodbyeVidāya, ವಿದಾಯ
Thank youDhan’yavāda, ಧನ್ಯವಾದ
PleaseDayaviṭṭu, ದಯವಿಟ್ಟು
Excuse meNannannu kṣamisabēku, ನನ್ನನ್ನು ಕ್ಷಮಿಸಬೇಕು
ManManuṣya, ಮನುಷ್ಯ
WomanHeṅgasu, ಹೆಂಗಸು
YesHaudu,ಹೌದು
NoIlla,ಇಲ್ಲ

 

Below are Kannada numerals 1-10.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

eraḍumūrunālkuayduĀruĒḷuEṇṭu

ombhattu

hattu

Writing

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The earliest inscriptions in Kannada date back to 450 AD. Kannada literature was fully developed by the 10th century, and works on medicine and science appeared in the 12th century. The same period marked the start of a grammar tradition.

The Kannada alphabet evolved from descendants of the Brahmi script which were used in the 5th-7th centuries AD. These scripts provided the basis for the Old Kannada script, which, in turn, evolved into the Kannada and Telugu scripts standardized in the early 1900s by Christian missionaries, and used today.

Kannada is written horizontally from left to right with a syllabic alphabet in which all consonants have an inherent vowel. Diacritics, which can appear above, below, before or after the consonant, indicate change to another vowel or suppression of the inherent vowel. At the beginning of a syllable, vowels are written as independent letters. When consonants appear together without intervening vowels, the second consonant is written as a special conjunct symbol with the second consonant written below the first. Kannada letters have rounded shapes due to the fact that in ancient times writing was done by carving on palm leaves with a sharp point. Using this technique, it was apparently easier to produce curved lines than straight ones.

Take a look at Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Kannada script and Romanization.

ನಿಬಂಧನೆ ೧.
ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಮಾನವರೂ ಸ್ವತಂತ್ರರಾಗಿಯೇ ಜನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾರೆ. ಹಾಗೂ ಘನತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಹಕ್ಕುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಮಾನರಾಗಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ವಿವೇಕ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಃಕರಣ ಗಳನ್ನು ಪದೆದವರಾದ್ದ ರಿಂದ ಅವರು ಪರಸ್ಪರ ಸಹೋದರ ಭಾವದಿಂದ ವರ್ತಿಸಚೀಕು. 
Ellā mānavarū svatantrarāgiyē janisiddāre. Hāgū ghanate mattu hakku gaḷalli samānarāgiddāre. Vivēka mattu antaḥkaraṇagaḷannu paḍedavarāddarinda avaru paraspara sahōdara bhāvadinda vartisabēku.
Article 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Difficulty

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Language Difficulty

How difficult is it to learn Kannada?
There is no data on the difficulty level of Kannada for speakers of English.

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