Case Study Information System In A Restaurant Smu
A selection of papers written by graduate students to fulfill the requirements of their degree study are posted below. These analytical papers result from either an internship experience with a sponsor or a research project and are submitted, in journal form, to the department's publication "Papers in Resource Analysis" as a capstone to their education.
Click on the student's name to see the abstract of the paper. Papers are listed alphabetically by last name. To view the actual paper you will need Adobe Acrobat Reader. If you do not have Adobe Acrobat Reader on your computer you can download a free copy at the Adobe website.
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-ZA-F
Zakim Abraham & Jason Schuster
|Sanitary Sewer Flow Model and Storm Water Analysis for the Meadow Hills Subdivisions in Rochester, MN|
Data was digitally developed to determine sanitary sewer locations, elevations, flow directions and parcels’ impervious areas during the summer of 2002 for the City of Rochester, Minnesota. The purpose of this project was to use these data and to develop and model a GIS template for the City of Rochester. This model was developed to model sewage flow in the event of future sanitary pipe emergencies. This model analyzes sanitary sewer pipe blockages to determine potentially impacted parcel(s) by the blockage. A second model was developed to facilitate planning in regards to storm water management. Storm water runoff was analyzed on a per parcel basis to predict rainfall runoff based on percentages of impervious surfaces. DOQQ photography was used to capture the impervious areas in parcels by onscreen digitizing. ArcMap 8.2 was used to analyze the data.
James B. Agunsoye
|The Use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the Chi-Square Statistic to Spatially and Statistically Analyze Trends in Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Across White Tailed Deer Management Units (DMUs) within the Current CWD Management Zone (CWD-MZ) in South Central Wisconsin|
The increasing spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) across Southern Wisconsin has given rise to grave concerns about the spread of the disease, despite the best efforts put forth by the state and federal government and other agencies. With current technological advancements and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the spread of CWD can closely be monitored. This project focuses on the spread of CWD in deer management units (DMUs) within the current CWD management zone (CWD-MZ) from the years 2005 to 2009 in south central Wisconsin. The current CWD management zone is located in the south central quadrant of the state of Wisconsin. A brief history of CWD, its diagnosis, public health concerns, risk of transmission to humans (Epidemiologic Studies), and transmission to other animals are discussed. There are many aspects of the disease for which information is very limited. The ultimate goal is to keep collecting information on endemic areas in the state, and to spatially and numerically analyzing test results. Results derived from such analyses may then be used for better decision making.
Abdi M. Ahmed
|Using GIS to Analyze Immigrant Populations Service Needs in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Counties, Minnesota USA|
Minnesota has always been welcoming for immigrants and it has hosted many immigrants over the years. However, in the last three decades, new waves of immigrants from Asia and Africa have made Minnesota their homes and most are refugees who fled from their native countries for reasons such as civil unrest and fear of persecution if they remain or go back. These new immigrants came to Minnesota for the same reason as immigrants came in the 20th century or before, looking for freedom, affordable housing, jobs, social services, and other resources. Almost all immigrants need some types of services and resources to help them adapt to their new country. With the surge of immigrants and their need for social services and assistance, service providers face challenges to deliver these services. To predict future waves of immigrants, to estimate current immigrant populations, and to identify where immigrants reside can help plan and prepare services from both governmental and non-governmental organizations. GIS tools along with tabular and spatial analyses were used to produce maps and tables. These were created to better understand where immigrants are living in the Seven County Metro area.
|Business Consulting for the Transportation Industry: Increasing Profitability, Performance, and Productivity by Using GIS Data and Tools to Support Better Decision Making|
Through the use of improved business processes and the support of GIS tools, companies can increase revenue, decrease time to make better decisions and use GIS technologies to replace underperforming processes. In the trucking industry, technology has been used for many purposes including communication, mapping, planning, and reporting. This project compares the effectiveness of new logistics technologies to old techniques that typically used more man hours to complete similar tasks. The process and resulting recommendations are supported by companies that saw a 30% increase in the number of trucks managed compared to the number workers assigned to manage them, decreases in key areas that caused companies to lose revenue and provided improvement in asset utilization. The results of each case study varied, but in each case, significant improvements were made in how the customer processed data or eliminated hours of data entry. The study and recommendations provided ways to analyze business needs, set achievable goals, and ways to improve an organization.
|Usability of Forest Residue Biomass for Electric Utility Production in Wisconsin USA|
A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to estimate the amount of available forest residue biomass from timber harvests within the State of Wisconsin, USA and within a 50 mile radius of power plants that burn biomass for energy production. Publically available land cover, soil, and elevation data were used to ascertain the available forested areas for biomass harvest. Approximately 5.8 million oven dry tons of forest residue biomass are considered available statewide, the majority located in the northern part of the state. While further consideration should be done on a site by site basis, Wisconsin’s forests hold the potential to aid in electric utility production.
Brie L Anderson
|Accuracy and Precision of Using Aerial Photography to Monitor Great Blue Heron Colonies on the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge|
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has been monitoring great blue heron colonies on the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge, a 260-mile stretch of the Mississippi River from Wabasha, Minnesota downstream to near Clinton, Iowa. Since the 1990s, the Service has utilized a standardized methodology consisting of digitizing nests on aerial photography. While this task has traditionally been completed by a Service biologist, it may be carried out by a more novice GIS analyst in the future. As a means to validate the Service’s data collection model, novice GIS users with no prior nest detection skills digitized great blue heron nests at nine colonies from 2010. Nest location data from the novice was then compared to the experienced Service dataset. Accuracy was measured by comparing the total number of nests and the total number of the same nests both the novice and expert (Service) identified. Precision was measured by the nest distance error, the distance between the novice and expert points associated with the same nest. There were no statistical differences in the total number of nests per colony between the novice and expert. However, the number of the same nests identified by both the novice and expert compared to the expert was statistically different. Errors of omission (nests identified by the expert, but not the novice) and commission (nests identified by the novice, but not the expert) were most common in the southern three colonies, and may have been related to greater leaf out conditions. Nest distance error was significantly different amongst colonies, but within a reasonable distance given the typical size of a great blue heron nest. This study worked under the assumption that the expert data accurately reflects real-world conditions. However, this is not necessarily true as there is an element of human error in censusing a colony. The Service’s monitoring method could be improved by utilizing two people, such as a novice and expert, digitizing nests independently followed by a collaboration whereby errors of omission and commission are discussed and eliminated between the users. This two person method would strengthen the monitoring approach by eliminating the assumption that the expert data accurately reflects real-world conditions, and instead, foster a more collaborative approach to account for differences in photo interpretation, experience, and nest detectability.
|An Exploratory Study on Heads Up Photo Interpretation of Aerial Photography as a Method for Mapping Drainage Tiles|
Agricultural producers have been using subsurface artificial drainage since the late 1800’s. This allows areas that would have otherwise been deemed unproductive for agriculture to grow substantial yields. Data and records on drainage tile location are not consistent. In recent years, researchers have turned to aerial photography to map functioning drainage tiles. Knowing the location of drainage can allow more accurate hydrology studies. This research explores photo interpretation and compares it to remote sensing and decision tree analysis techniques to delineate subsurface agricultural drainage tiles in the Eagle Creek Watershed in Iowa, USA.
Travis J. Bare
|A Change Detection Analysis of Agricultural Land Use from the 1970’s to 2001 in Dane County, Wisconsin and the Relationship to Urban Growth|
This study explored the application of a geographic information system (GIS) to a land use and land cover (LULC) change detection analysis. Primary concern was given to changes in agricultural and developed land resulting from urban growth, although several land use categories were taken into consideration. Dane County, Wisconsin was the location for the study and the LULC raster data layers spanned three time periods including the 1970’s, 1992, and 2001. Objectives included the identification of areas of rapid urban growth and how this directly impacted the availability of agricultural land, and the production of extrapolated values illustrating possible agriculturally impacted areas due to future urban growth.
Brian K. Barklind
|Assessing Avian Diversity in Minnesota Through the Utilization of Spatial and Statistical Analysis|
Improving the methods for determining which areas should be prioritized for conservation efforts may be accomplished by using indicators such as biodiversity. The data provided by the United States Geological Survey‟s Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) has made calculating changes in biodiversity over a specified time frame possible. By using bird survey data available for the state of Minnesota, analysis was performed to determine the levels of biodiversity in each area of the state during various time periods. Along with spatial analysis, statistical analysis was performed on the data by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results of the analysis indicated there was a significant (P < 0.05) correlation between the proportion of natural land cover and the amount of avian diversity. Future studies may be able to develop predictive models using this and other correlatives. By predicting richness levels, priority may be placed on specific areas within the state for conservation efforts.
Jared G. Beerman
|The Potential for Gray Wolves to Return to Pennsylvania Based on GIS Habitat Modeling|
The gray wolf is an animal that is often misunderstood. Due to negative stereotypes of gray wolves, they were hunted to the brink of extinction in the contiguous United States of America. Presently, numerous states (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming) are implementing reintroduction and management plans to rebuild the wolf population. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to identify potential areas for wolf expansion based on habitat requirements in the state of Pennsylvania. This study used information from research compiled on existing wolf packs in the contiguous United States, along with management and reintroduction plans to locate suitable land for gray wolves located in the state of Pennsylvania. The approach was to use numerous data layers to determine if any land could support wolf existence and where these ranges would be located. Key layers used to locate wolf pack ranges in this study included: road density, human density, and land cover. The suitable locations were then examined to determine: water availability, prey density, and total range size. Once these locations had been identified, an approximation of potential pack size was then determined based on range size. The results of this study show there are multiple ranges which could potentially be used for gray wolf habitation in Pennsylvania.
Kelsey L. Beery
|Case Study of Bog Change on Long Lake in Aitkin County, Minnesota USA|
This study examines historical landcover change and growth rate of the bog surrounding Long Lake in Aitkin County, located in Northern Minnesota. Bogs create a unique environment for plants and wildlife alike, which is why it is important to monitor their growth and to keep peatlands intact. This study uses five aerial images covering the period 1939 to 2010. Each image was digitized around areas of open water, bog, and mature bog. The Vector-based Landscape Analysis Tool Extension (V-LATE) was used to examine change over the 71 year time period. V-LATE analyses included area, edge, core area, and diversity. A prediction analysis was also performed to forecast future bog growth. Results showed a large decrease in mature bog in 1982 then an increase for the remainder of the study. An overall bog growth of 9.86 m2 or 0.0024 acres occurred between 1939 and 2010.
Cole C. Belongie
|Using GIS to Create a Gray Wolf Habitat Suitability Model and to Assess Wolf Pack Ranges in the Western Upper Peninsula of Michigan|
Gray wolves are often difficult for biologists, forest planners, and wildlife managers to study and predict movements and habits. The controversy over wolves in the Midwest is growing with the delisting of the gray wolf from the Threatened and Endangered Species List. Growing populations of wolves have increased sightings and contact between humans and wolves. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a tool that can be utilized by planners and managers to identify wolf habitats and possible areas of human – wolf conflict. This study uses GIS to take information from written literature on wolf habitat and preferences of wolf locations and ranges in the Western Upper Peninsula of Michigan and compare these to a model of wolf range suitability developed in this study.
The model developed by this study utilizes four raster layers (landuse/land cover, road density, population density, and deer population density) classified to create suitability ranges. The model created indicates the presence of abundant suitable habitat in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.
Jay T. Berken
|Using GIS to Analyze Wind Turbine Sites within the Shakopee Public Utilities Electric Service Territory, Shakopee, MN USA|
Shakopee Public Utilities (SPU) has been a publicly owned electric and water utility in Minnesota USA since 1902. Its electric service territory includes most of the City of Shakopee and some surrounding townships and a small portion of the City of Prior Lake. The City of Shakopee contains a main downtown district as well as residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural zones. SPU is a separate entity from the City of Shakopee with a commission appointed by the Shakopee City Council. As an electric utility, SPU does not generate its own power and purchases all of its electric power demands from outside sources. SPU has been receiving inquiries from developers of power generating wind turbines since energy independence and the worries of global warming have become more prevalent. This study is a macro comprehensive spatial analysis to determine the best placement of wind turbines in SPU’s electric territory by analyzing geographic data layers.
|Apples, Bananas, and Oranges: Using GIS to Determine Distance Travelled, Energy Use, and Emissions from Imported Fruit|
Public interest in food distribution systems as well as an increasing amount of food imports to the United States has resulted in a need for methods of quantifying the transportation of food imports in terms of distance travelled, energy use, and environmental impact. Geographic information systems (GIS) provide a powerful tool to organize and analyze spatial data. This study used a geographic information system to analyze monthly imports of apples, oranges, and bananas in 2008. Shipping routes were mapped, and statistics including average distance travelled, total energy use, and total greenhouse gas emissions were calculated. Bananas were imported in a much larger quantity than apples and bananas, but the average source distance, energy/ton, and emissions/ton measures were lower for bananas than for imported apples and oranges.
Alexander J. Blenkush
|Understanding the Employment Complexion of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Region through Location Quotient and Shift Share Analysis|
Two economic analysis techniques, the Location Quotient and Shift Share Analysis, were used to quantify employment strengths and weaknesses within the Minneapolis-St. Paul seven county metropolitan region. Employment data between the years 2002 and 2011 were gathered from the United States Census Quarterly Workforce Indicators (QWI) database of the United States Census Bureau. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to process, analyze, and display the data. The resulting tables, charts and maps can serve as a useful tool for regional planners, economic developers and/or general policy makers.
Timothy J. Boland
|Creating a GIS to Classify Backwater Aquatic Habitat Based on Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Water Chemistry Data of Pool 8 on the Upper Mississippi River|
The Upper Mississippi River (UMR) is one of the most diverse and valuable ecosystems in the entire world. The UMR is considered a “multi-use” resource, meaning it is vital for wildlife, transportation, commerce, public utilities, and recreation. Prioritizing and balancing these uses can be a difficult challenge. A critical component to understanding and communicating knowledge about the UMR lies in defining aquatic habitat types. Backwater habitat areas, in particular, serve as one of the most valuable habitat types because they directly impact river flora and fauna and are crucial to maintaining river water quality. Currently, backwater aquatic habitat is identified and classified solely by visual photo-interpretation and historic geomorphology. As it becomes increasingly important to be able to protect and study backwater areas, and distinguish them from the flowing portions of the river, the need has arisen to more precisely locate these areas based on scientific data. Long-Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) data components from Pool 8 near Lacrosse, WI, are used to define backwater aquatic habitat areas based upon water chemistry. The main components of the LTRMP data chosen for analysis include: water current velocity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll a. In this study, backwater habitat locations are defined by creating acceptable criteria for each component and interpolating a surface based on the criteria. Newly defined extents for backwater habitat are then compared to current backwater habitat extents. This new approach to identifying and classifying these backwater habitat areas serves as an important decision-marking tool for river managers involved in a variety of projects such as habitat restoration and water quality standards testing.
|Restoration Potential of Native Prairie on the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota USA|
North American prairies are in steep decline. Much of this decline stems from conversion to agriculture and the invasion of exotic species. The goal of this study was to provide an interpolated layer of prairie vegetation and conduct a native prairie restoration potential analysis. The J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota USA was the focus of this analysis, but the analysis can be modified to provide results in other regions for other organizations. An IDW interpolation was used to derive a vegetation dominance surface from the sampling sites point data. The SSURGO soils layer was reclassified as either suitable or non-suitable for native prairie growth based on soil texture and drainage. Lidar elevation data were reclassified into suitable and non-suitable slope surfaces for native prairie growth. The reclassified soil and slope layers were then combined with the vegetation dominance layer using Esri’s Raster Calculator. Based on soil and vegetation criteria, areas of high potential for native prairie restoration were located mainly in the southern portion of the refuge. The slope analysis revealed issues when compared to field observations. Overall, results provide a visualization of native prairie restoration potential and would be useful for management decision-making.
Ryan R. Borman
|The Development and Implementation of a GIS System for Sunde Land Surveying, LLC.|
This paper outlines the exploration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) being used by land surveying managers. Using ArcGIS 9.0 (ArcView), ArcCatalog, Autodesk Land Desktop and other mapping software, a survey identification application was created for Sunde Land Surveying, LLC. in Bloomington, MN. The goals of this project were to create a server based application that would give Sunde Land Surveying managers the ability to view and query information about past surveys, and secondly, to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency that is gained from having such an application.
Brian Boulmay and Jeff Bloomquist
|An Investigation of Geographic Information Systems in Comprehensive Land Use|
Land use planning has become an increasingly complex and dynamic profession that depends on the working relations from all facets of society. Comprehensive planning provides an opportunity to state and develop these beliefs into general goals and policies for a coMMunity over a prescribed amount of time. Maintaining and continually updating these plans is an ongoing process in defining goals and aspirations with varying problem solving methodologies. Sorting through the varying agendas and ideas often falls on decision makers in a bureaucracy, who have to base their thoughts on their best judgement. These conclusions can be greatly enhanced using visual representations of the prescribed subject matter. Winona County’s Planning CoMMission has chosen to implement Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a basic tool that will assist them in updating the Current Comprehensive Land Use Plan. Using GIS provides an avenue to actively view data in a spatial context that will enhance their cognitive reasoning processes and make more sense than archaic textual facts and numbers. The pilot project was to include all steps from accessibility and cost of data to analysis and output of useful data that will be used in the Comprehensive Land Use Plan update process.
|Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk within a Subwatershed using GIS and RUSLE with a Comparative Analysis of the use of STATSGO and SSURGO Soil Databases|
Land degradation and subsequent soil erosion and sedimentation play a significant role in impairing water resources within subwatersheds, watersheds and basins. Using conventional methods to assess soil erosion risk is expensive and time consuming. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), coupled with the use of an empirical model to assess risk, can identify and assess soil erosion potential and estimate the value of soil loss. The objectives of this project are to: 1) assess soil erosion risk within a Zumbro River subwatershed in southeastern Minnesota using GIS and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), 2) comparatively analyze the use and scaling effect of STATSGO and SSURGO soil databases with RUSLE and 3) assess the sensitivity and scaling effect of estimated soil loss to model variables. Soil, land use, digital elevation, flow accumulation and climatic data are used to generate RUSLE variables. This empirical soil erosion model estimates soil loss values by tons/acre/year and assesses the spatial distribution of soil erosion risk within the entire subwatershed. By comparing soil loss estimates, spatial distribution and variable sensitivity from the RUSLE model using STATSGO soil data and SSURGO soil data, it is possible to compare the responses of both soil databases. Nonparametric regression shows the level of relatedness between STATSGO and SSURGO RUSLE model outputs at the subwatershed scale. Correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.914, 0.928, and 0.922 for 10, 30, and 50 meter resolutions respectively highlight the significance of the relationship. At high to very high levels of estimated soil erosion loss the relatedness between STATSGO and SSURGO-based RUSLE model outputs lessened. Of the LS, K, and C model variables investigated, the C variable (cover management) exhibited a greater level of relatedness to RUSLE model outputs than the other variables at 10, 30 and 50 meter resolutions but not enough to be significant.
Mitchell A. Brinks
|Development and Implementation of a GIS Model for Determining Optimal Nest Box Placement for Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis)|
The eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) was nearly eliminated during the mid 1900’s by habitat destruction, competition, and other human-related disturbances. However, the past few decades have seen an unprecedented resurgence in bluebird numbers thanks in a large part to the placement of bluebird nest boxes by concerned citizens. A study was conducted using geographic information system (GIS) technology to determine the optimal nest box locations for bluebirds in Minnesota by analyzing nest site selection in relation to the distance between nest boxes and elements of the landscape such as roads, buildings, water, trees, and other boxes. Thirty-five years worth of data of roughly 80 nest boxes from an existing study near Pierz, MN were provided by bluebird researchers Dave and Carol Fiedler of Buffalo, MN. Field work included marking the locations of the boxes with a global positioning system (GPS) as well as describing the landscape characteristics surrounding the box. Distances were measured using ortho-rectified aerial photographs with much of the display and analysis done using Arcview 3.2 and ArcGIS. Each of the bluebird competitors was analyzed separately and then combined to develop buffer distances for ideal bluebird box placement.
Cory A. Brose
|Geographic Information Systems for Spatial Analysis of Traffic Collision Locations|
in La Crosse, Wisconsin
Spatial distributions and densities of traffic collisions were defined through utilization of a Geographic Information System. Traffic collision data for La Crosse, Wisconsin were acquired from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation. Database and spreadsheet programs were used to edit and standardize the traffic collision data to index with 1995 Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) system files. Structured Query Language, an integrated functionality of the Geographic Information System, was used as the primary tool to initiate both spatial and statistical analyses. Traffic collision densities and trends, with respect to various road conditions, intersection control, driver circumstances, etc. were displayed as visual computer images. Statistical analyses, charts, and graphs were used to supplement the study.
Jacqueline T. Brost
|Assessing Effects of Geocaching as a Recreational Activity on Natural Resources Within Minnesota State Parks|
Geocaching is a high-tech treasure hunt combining hand held Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and hiking. This recreational activity has grown in popularity since publicly launched in 2000. Affordable recreational-grade GPS units, as well as cellular phones equipped with GPS, have increased the number of people geocaching worldwide. Popularity has brought with it an increase in environmental impacts caused by geocaching. This study details steps taken to assess environmental impacts caused by geocaching in twenty-one Minnesota state parks. Further, the study defines methodologies used to determine areas and causes of high impact, including procedures to create a geocache placement suitability assessment map, and a model identifying vulnerable areas that could be utilized by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources or other interested parties for future geocache policy planning.
Derrick Chip Brown
|Applying a Model to Predict the Location of Land Drained by Subsurface Drainage Systems in Central Minnesota|
Agricultural drain tile systems are a significant influence on the condition of wetlands and waterways. The influence of these systems is often difficult to determine since installation records are incomplete or were never kept. Using a modified decision class tree and raster analysis in ArcGIS, a model for predicting the location of land drained by subsurface systems was evaluated. The three-county study site in the agricultural region of central Minnesota provided an area of known drain tile systems so that the model predictions could be compared to locations of existing systems and drained land. The model criteria incorporated publically available data including agricultural land use data identified by the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) and the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), soil characteristics obtained through the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO), and slope characteristics developed from the National Elevation Dataset (NED). Results indicate that with the best combination of criteria the model predictions correspond nearly 80% with the actual drain tile data. The potential to incorporate the influence of drain tile areas into land-use based assessments of wetland and waterway health is an important outcome of being able to identify land drained by artificial subsurface drainage features.
|Creating a Model that Assesses the Probability of Impact of Petroleum|
Contaminated Leaksites on Community Wells: Rochester, Minnesota
An analysis of the Rochester areas was conducted in order to understand which community wells were the most vulnerable to contamination from petroleum sources. Analysis involved the development of five modules: Leaksite Proximity to Community Wells, Groundwater Flow Direction, Pollution Sensitivity of Leaksite Locations, Community Well Characteristics, and Leaksite Conditions. Each of these modules were scored on independent criteria and were then multiplied times each other to obtain the final results. In addition to obtaining a community well vulnerability reading, other information was gained from the study by using different modules in different combinations. Combining the first three modules provide a predictive way to look at areas of the community that are likely to remain problematic and might be considered for special zoning. A quick assessment of the possible impact of a new leak, spill, or point source can be obtained by looking at their locations on a grid of the values obtained by combining the first four modules. Combining the first three modules and the fifth can serve to guide new well placement, pumping rates for new wells and well testing. Areas identified with the highest probability of risk for petroleum contamination were found in the central to southern parts of the city. These areas stretch along South Broadway (Highway 63) and about two miles west and one mile east of the intersection of Broadway and Highway 14. Areas to the north and west presented the least amount of risk.
Uday Kiran Buddi
|Solid Waste Disposal Site Selection for Capital Region of Andhra Pradesh Using MultiCriteria Analysis and GIS |
Solid waste disposal is becoming a major global problem. Due to increasing human activity, solid waste is creating serious damage to the ecosystem and human health. Damage is caused by illegal dumping of urban waste in unacceptable locations. For this reason, local municipal and central governments are moving forward to construct engineered solid waste landfills in suitable areas. A geographic information system (GIS) is a tool that can be utilized by engineers and city planners to identify the best possible sites for disposal. This study leverages GIS and multi-criteria analysis to develop a suitability model based on previous studies of solid waste disposal site selection. Data was collected, and locations in the capital region of Andhra Pradesh, India were prioritized based on the suitability model developed in this study. The model developed by this study utilized raster layers (land use classification, distance to roads and railways, slope, and constraint layers) categorized to conduct suitability analysis. Suitable locations were then converted to polygons in order to evaluate their size and land use type. Due to the high population of India, available land is limited. This study utilized various techniques to identify sparsely available land suitable for solid waste disposal.
Ryan C. Budlong
|The Use of Spatial Data in Creating a Riparian Buffer Suitability Model: Whitewater|
River Watershed, Minnesota
An analysis of the Whitewater River Watershed in Southeastern Minnesota was performed to determine suitable locations for riparian habitat buffers. A model was created to determine subwatersheds most suitable for potential riparian habitat buffer sites. Three factors were used in determining the subwatershed ranking system for the potential buffer sites. The three factors used in creating the model were proximity of row crops to streams and rivers, subwatershed slope, and proximity of feedlots to rivers and streams of the Whitewater River Watershed. Much of the analysis for this project was done to determine a subwatershed ranking system that ranks the need for riparian buffers on a subwatershed level. Landuse/Landcover data was obtained from GAP Analysis data obtained from the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Gap Analysis data were obtained from Landsat images classified at 30-meter resolution. The subwatersheds that ranked highest in the need for riparian habitat buffers were primarily located in the heavily used agricultural areas located near the headwaters of the watershed. Intensive agriculture practices were the major factor in the riparian buffer model determining that the highest potential for riparian buffers is near the headwaters of the watershed.
Aaron J. Buffington
|An Assessment of Urban Park Values and Residential Properties Utilizing GIS in|
Urban parks and open space have always been a valuable asset to human communities. They are multi-faceted in the kind of value that they have provided to local communities. For this reason, parks and open space have been given much attention during the planning processes in the urban environment. Urban parks have not only provided recreation benefits to communities, but have provided much economic wealth to local communities. Community residents have noted the benefits of urban parks. In many urban environments, residential property values have increased near parks as a direct result. The City of Rochester, Minnesota has been acknowledged as having a very strong urban park system. The city’s several ravines, rivers and woodland areas have provided natural corridors for the development of its park system. A strong economy in Rochester has resulted in continuous urban growth. Along with the city’s growth, the downtown and residential areas are now becoming more urbanized. Rochester has also been noted for its stable property and housing prices. City property is in demand, and will continue to be in great demand for years to come. As Rochester expands, its parks system needs to be considered during the urban planning processes to protect the high sense of residential value that Rochester is known for today. This study takes a look at the values that Rochester’s urban parks are given by the local communities, and more specifically, the correlation between the urban parks and residential property value. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was implemented to show direct patterns and correlations between the city park system and residential property values.
|A Comparative Analysis of Lakeshore Property Values in the Brainerd Lakes Area|
This project takes an in-depth look at the environmental variables of freshwater lakes and how these variables affect the land value of lakeshore property. A GIS-based spatial and statistical analysis applied to lakeshore data from Crow Wing and Cass county Minnesota, provided the information necessary to establish general correlations applicable to Midwestern lakeshore property. The sample set includes: the Whitefish Chain, Pelican Lake, and Gull Lake. The environmental variables of these lakes can be divided into two groups; those that pertain to lakeshore parcels and those that pertain to the lakes. The parcel variables include: square footage, deeded acres, perimeter length, lakeshore frontage, accessible acres of water, and 2009 county-estimated land value. The variables of the lakes include: acreage, length of shoreline, littoral acreage, number of public accesses, water clarity, maximum depth, and median depth. The relationship between the environmental variables and the land value of lakeshore property is illustrated through correlations, multiple regression, and a Hedonic Value Analysis.
Thomas J. Burmeister
|Broadband Coverage: Assessing the Digital Divide in Winona County, Minnesota|
High-speed internet access is a becoming a greater necessity for people to participate in today’s economy. However, even though broadband networks have been greatly expanded, there are still areas that do not have access. This study examines the extent to which Winona County, Minnesota is connected to the internet via broadband connection and the opportunities for expanding broadband penetration. The Network Analyst extension in ESRI’s ArcGIS allowed for extensive analysis of which central switching offices (COs) would be the best candidates to upgrade to provide broadband service via the New Location-Allocation, also known as, “maximal coverage location problem.”
Claudia F. Caceres
|Using GIS in Hotspots Analysis and for Forest Fire Risk Zones Mapping in the Yeguare Region, Southeastern Honduras|
Honduras experiences reduction in forest resources at the rate of more than 800 km2 per year. This is largely caused by changes in the land use, firewood, forest fires and irrational logging (GOH, 2001). The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report some of causes of fires in Mesoamerican countries are social inequity, devaluated natural resources, inadequate policies and lack of forest resource management by communities (FAO, 2007). Forest fires are an important part of forest life cycles and are an essential tool for many Honduran producers for land preparation and pest control. Fire is used by small producers and big agricultural industrials alike, and especially in the sugar cane industry. Even though fire is a useful and natural way of forest management, it may have adverse consequences in the environment. The economy and nearby communities can also be harmed if misused. Every year Honduras loses forest resources; forest fires are one of the main reasons for this loss. This study presents the use of GIS and remote sensing to identify forest fire risk zones in the Yeguare region and offers insight on outcomes from areas within fire risk zones.
Kimberly M. Cannon
|Market Analysis: Using GIS to Analyze Areas for Business Retail Expansion|
This paper illustrates how Geographic Information Systems can be used to expand a pet food product into new market areas. A correlation analysis of pet feed in tons sold against demographic variables helped to identify a customer profile. Determining pet feed potential and estimated gross revenue was then estimated and analyzed spatially. The customer profile was then compared to areas higher in gross revenue to determine areas for Land O'Lakes Purina Feed, LLC to conduct further research to determine if these locations would be suitable for market expansion.
Christopher D. Cantrell
|Comparative Analysis of Response Times between Actual Emergency Responses and Geographic Information Systems Developed Emergency Responses for Midland County, Michigan|
Emerging technologies allow antiquated emergency response coverage areas to be updated and improved upon. In Midland County the existing emergency response system has been in place for over ten years. Spatial technologies provide the means for analyzing current systems with anticipation of discovering areas of improvement. The current response coverages are not developed based on shortest distance to a location. Response coverages are developed according to township boundaries and in some cases multiple townships are one coverage area. Emergency response times are a measurable quantity; it is these times with which responding units work on improvement continuously. Through the use of geonetworking, response times are analyzed and modeled to develop an efficient and logical coverage for responding units based on spatial location.
Kristin D. Caputa
|Using Advanced Spatial Analysis to Create and Analyze the Prehistoric Environment of Pueblo III Tower Gallina Sites in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico USA|
The prehistory of New Mexico, USA is often represented by three specific phases in cultural development: Pueblo I (700 – 900 AD), Pueblo II (900 – 1100 AD), and Pueblo III (1100 – 1300 AD). During the Pueblo III occupation a specific cultural group known as the “Gallina” began to define both the archaeological and cultural record with construction of towers, an architectural feature unique to this sub-set of people. Coupled with the enigmatic tower feature, the focus of this study is to explore the spatial component of archaeology using a relatively small population of fifteen Pueblo III Gallina tower sites in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Spatial analysis and geodatabase design/creation were used to demonstrate the capabilities of GIS as a comprehensive tool to aid in the analysis of archaeological data. As a result, a topographic model was created through the use of elevation, slope, and aspect rasters. The sites evaluated showcase the versatility of GIS in the study of archaeology, one that should be regarded as a powerful tool in all stages of archaeological evaluation and understanding.
|Spatial Analysis Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Evaluate Areas Susceptible to Repeat Flash Flooding in La Crosse County, Wisconsin|
Flooding is the most common geohazard in the United States. A flood can impact a small area, an entire community, or large metropolitan region, whether located in a floodplain or not. Not all floods are alike. Some develop slowly, over a period of days. Others occur quickly with little warning and are referred to as flash floods. La Crosse County, located in western Wisconsin, recently experienced two devastating flash floods that warranted federal disaster declarations. The damages reached millions of dollars and have motivated the community to find ways to eliminate or reduce future incidents. For this reason, a Geographic Information System (GIS) analytical model was developed to evaluate the characteristics of infrastructure damages incurred during the 2007 and 2008 flash floods to determine if any spatial similarities exist which may be an indicator of predicting areas in which future flash flood events may occur. The model used soil types, land use, slope and stream data. Each criterion was ranked as best (least likely to experience flash flooding), moderate, or worst (most likely to experience flash flooding), respectively. The objective was to define areas with the highest risk factors (most likely to flood) and assess how closely these locations are to the actual damage sites reported during the flood events of 2007 and 2008. The results of the study reflect all damage claims, except for one each year, were not located in the areas ranked as most likely to experience flash flooding based on the model..
|Tele-work as Mitigation of Natural Disasters for Continuity Planning|
Damaging natural disasters cause major disruptions to critical infrastructure, telecommunications, transportation, emergency services, and businesses. Many companies have disaster plans, but do they know how to prepare for one? This project details steps for using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to determine natural disaster risk areas where tele-work could be used as a mitigation strategy for a company’s continuity plan. This project develops a scenario for an anonymous company located in San Diego County California and maps natural disaster risk areas to learn disaster potential on business logistics. A backup site and tele-workers were identified to determine their ability to keep the company operational during and after a natural disaster. The results of this study show which areas in the county are at higher risk of experiencing a natural disaster. Businesses can use information such as this to determine if they need to consider a secondary work site and to identify which employees could work from home.
|Wildland Fire Risk Zone Mapping in the Southern Part of California Using a Geographic Information System|
Southern California experiences moderate to devastating wildfires every year which continue to incur tremendous economic and emotional costs to homeowners and communities. Wildfires are largely caused by southern California’s hot and dry weather conditions and human activities near forested areas. Even though fire is an important part of a forest’s life cycle, and a natural method of forest management, it may have adverse consequences on the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the factors that drive southern California’s fire risk and minimize the losses caused by wildfires. This study uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify the wildland fire risk zones in the southern part of California and compare the predicted fire risk zones to historical fire data. In addition to the fire risk model, this study involved statistical analyses: two-sample t-test and chi-square analysis of contingency tables. The two-sample t-test compared the mean slope of the areas with fires to the mean slope of the areas without fires, which concluded that the mean slope with fires was statistically greater than the mean slope without fires. The chi-square analysis of contingency tables examined the consistency of the proportion of fires in each risk zone in the last ten years. The results show the proportion of fires in each risk zone was not consistent during that time period.
Matthew R. Claypool
|Impacts of Vegetation on Overhead Electrical Distribution Lines (Paper unavailable online)|
Connexus Energy, founded in 1937, is one of the largest local cooperatives in the Midwestern States of the United States (USA). The company serves over 130,000 members across seven counties in central Minnesota, covering an area just over 966 square miles. Its service territory includes cities and rural communities. Specifically, the company provides services to a plethora and variety of homes and businesses including single-family dwellings, apartment complexes, small start-up companies, large corporations and farmsteads. One of the company's main objectives is to provide reliable electricity to its members in a safe manner. There are many different factors and risks that can impact the reliability of power. These include wildlife, weather, planned power outages, equipment failure, and vegetation. This study focuses on the influences of vegetation on power outages from a geospatial and quantitative perspective; more specifically, identifying the impact circuits have in experiencing a higher tendency of vegetation related power outages. Research shows the longer vegetation near a circuit goes untrimmed, the greater the likelihood of vegetation related power outages.
Chad M. Clower
|A Break Even Analysis and Potential Profitability of a Proposed Residential Development within the City of La Crosse, Wisconsin USA|
A break-even analysis was conducted on a proposed residential subdivision development for a 79-acre farmstead on the southern fringe of La Crosse, Wisconsin USA. Potential profitability of the development was ascertained by this project. Both the current market for residential building sites and past sales of lots within existing subdivisions within the city were analyzed to help determine pricing for lots within this new proposed subdivision. Past and present real estate data were gathered from Multiple Listing Service data and La Crosse area periodicals. Map data was acquired from the La Crosse city planner’s office and a private engineering firm. Investment costs or outflows were land acquisition costs, development costs, marketing costs, and various indirect costs. These costs were provided by La Crosse area contractors and real estate companies. Project revenue was attained strictly through the sale of individual building sites. An analysis of the projected cash flow over an eight year project timeframe was conducted to provide the investor with the needed management information for decision-making.
Elizabeth C Collins
|Mapping the Northern Pines Girl Scout Council|
The Girl Scouts Northern Pine Council wanted to know how the number of girls enrolled as Scouts varied over time. They were also interested in relating zip codes to Service Units. Using ArcView and Bureau of Census data, this paper looks at one method to determine and map changes in the number of girls in Scouting and how zip code boundaries relate to Service Unit boundaries.
Joshua S. Cook
|Validating a Prescription Map used in Variable Rate Irrigation using Geographic Information Science|
Prescription maps are available commercially and widely used in center pivot irrigation systems for the purpose of applying variable rates of water in specified zones of a field. The objective of this study was to determine if the prescription map used for a center pivot irrigation system delivered adequate water content in a corn field in Belgrade, MN USA. To understand field variability in this study, apparent Electrical Conductivity (ECa), Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), and Available Water Storage (AWS) were used to guide sampling strategies for the purpose of measuring soil moisture with a neutron moisture meter (NMM). The prescription map was found to be valid in 7 out of 11 locations tested, or 63%, using high yield as a successful outcome.
Daniel T. Cooke
|Exploring Causational Factors of Ebola Outbreaks in Western Africa|
This research focused on using geographic information systems (GIS) as well as statistical analysis to explore causational factors of Ebola outbreaks in western Africa. The study area represented the continent of Africa, with statistical analysis being conducted for the countries of Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. Demographic data for the countries of Nigeria, Liberia, and Guinea was used to assess demographic factors in the study. An Ebola outbreak was recently declared over by the World Health Organization (WHO). The end date for the database used in the statistical tests was November 25, 2015. Using data from Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia, statistical tests were performed to determine differences in the number of cases and deaths. Data included cumulative total number of cases and deaths for each report date (approximately one report per week), for each country starting on March 1, 2014 as well as the final overall total number of cases and deaths per country as of November 25, 2015. Using this data, an ANOVA test was performed on both weekly death counts and case counts to determine if a difference existed between the countries. Statistical analysis, spatial GIS analysis, and a review of literature revealed human-to-human contact, poverty, and medical practices are believed to be contributing factors in the spread of the Ebola virus.
Christopher Jon Cremons
|GIS Implementation in Local Government: A Financial and Management Case Study Analysis|
This case study analyzed GIS (geographic information systems) implementation strategies for a fictional city attempting to understand the short term and long term costs and benefits of installing a GIS system to manage land information records. As local government assistance and tax revenue fall, local governments need to have a clear understanding of how funds are allocated and the return GIS investments can provide in order to create the maximum benefit for taxpayers. The purpose of this research was to use financial and management analysis tools to better understand GIS system implementation with the aim of creating a framework that organizations considering GIS implementation could utilize during the project planning phase. Using industry data and project estimates, the costs and benefits, return on investment, net present value, and cost of outsourcing the project for this GIS implementation project were calculated. The results showed a GIS project of this nature had a high up-front cost; the viability of the project from a financial perspective lay in the amount of revenue that could be generated from the sale of GIS data as this revenue represents an immediate return to offset implementation costs.
Karen Marie Cunningham
|Site Suitability Analysis of Stone Circle Sites in McKenzie County, North Dakota, at Site 32MZSWC|
Site suitability modeling in Archaeology is useful for determining the environmental parameters for site placement, thereby exceeding chance or random factors. If one is able to predict which factors dictate a site’s placement, then the salient question is “Why did Prehistoric people choose a certain location? Which terrestrial qualities were considered most useful for placing a circle of stones necessary for holding a tipi in place?” After surveying the 32MZSWC site, located in McKenzie County, North Dakota, certain patterns began to emerge. Many stone circle sites were placed on valley floors close to water, gently sloping open terraces, and bluff tops. Mapping the distribution of environmental factors is a key to understanding the distribution of human activity patterns in the Prehistoric time period. These terrestrial variables can be quantified in a model that helps support a more robust determination of a site’s possible location thereby maximizing efficiency of resources in the surveying process.
Sara J.L. Dale
|Using GIS to Determine a Spatial Measurement of Effective Service Areas of Human|
Services for the Minnesota Family Investment Program Facilities in Saint Paul, MN
This research examines processes of locating new Minnesota Family Investment Program
facilities in Saint Paul, Minnesota. The goal was to site facilities where the greatest need
exists based on an analysis of demographic and geographic characteristics. Locations of the
facilities were determined by identifying areas with the closest proximity to areas of high
demand and near major roadways. Demographic variables examined included: a) ethnicities
with the highest total recorded cases in the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP),
b) ethnicities with the highest number of total cases in the MFIP program for 59 months or
more, c) and ethnicities with the highest number of children in the MFIP program. Potential
locations for new facilities were determined by applying the following constraints. Each
facility must be location in an area: a) within an area of high concentration of demand, b)
within a location of a current school or library, c) within ½ mile of a major roadway. Point
density maps were produced through use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to show
|Utilizing a High Resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to Develop a Stream Power Index (SPI) for the Gilmore Creek Watershed in Winona County, Minnesota|
Erosion on the landscape usually happens in small increments and over thousands of years. With the advent of the agricultural and industrial revolutions many areas within the United States have witnessed increased top soil erosion. Much of this erosion has originated on agricultural lands, usually being attributed to the lack of adequate ground cover and not taking advantage of “best management practices.” These “best management practices” include: terracing, conservation dams and/or grass flow ways. The objective of this project was to utilize a high resolution digital elevation model developed using LiDAR (Light detection and ranging) paired with the SPI model of erosion prediction to test the model’s applicability to an entire watershed as a way to quickly identify areas at risk of gully erosion.
Lucas J. Danzinger
|Using GIS to Examine Potential Wolverine Habitat in Colorado: an Analysis of Habitat Fragmentation and Wildlife Corridors|
In 2010, a single male wolverine (Gulo gulo) traveled from the Greater Yellowstone Area of Wyoming into Colorado, marking the first known wolverine in Colorado since they were extirpated in 1919. The return of this wolverine to part of its historic range has prompted several wildlife advocates to lobby for a reintroduction of wolverines into the state of Colorado. To understand the viability of a reintroduction of this rare animal, an analysis of potential habitat was conducted through several steps. First, a habitat suitability model was developed based on previous wolverine habitat models from throughout North America. Next, a habitat fragmentation Python script ("Landscape Fragmentation Tool v. 2.0") was utilized to understand the fragmentation dynamics of the predicted habitat. Finally, a wildlife corridor model was created to develop a least cost raster and finally, to propose possible routes between core habitat areas. The results of this study do not predict the likelihood of success of a reintroduction, as this determination would require several additional studies and analyses; rather, this study is meant to be one tool to help aid wildlife managers in making informed decisions regarding the potential success of wolverine reintroduction in Colorado. The results of this study indicate a large amount of potential wolverine habitat with limited fragmentation. However, major roads and development may inhibit wolverine dispersal among the major patches of habitat in Colorado.
|Cattle Grazing Area Effects on Enterococcus Levels within Watersheds, USA|
The impacts of land use on water resources are quantifiable through the development of public geographic data and the use of geographic information systems (GIS). This study examines the ways in which fecal indicator organisms, specifically enterococcus, pollute surface waters. The production of animal wastes in agriculture poses a threat to the condition of local water resources through the contamination of runoff waters. Using publicly available geospatial data, an analysis was performed to describe the impact that cattle densities may have on watersheds throughout the conterminous United States (CONUS).
Lynne T. Dehann
|Habitat Selection by Mallard Broods on Navigation Pool 7 of the Upper Mississippi|
Habitat use and selection was determined for radio-marked mallard broods on Pool 7 of the Upper Mississippi River for 1993 and 1994. Data were collected on a daily basis using standard telemetry techniques. Habitat use was determined using methods that consider telemetry error in estimating brood locations. Compositional analysis was used to determine habitat selection at two levels. The first level of analysis (second-order selection) compared the area composition of habitat used in the home range to the area of habitats available throughout the study area. The second level of analysis (third-order selection) evaluated the telemetry locations as habitat used and compared them to the area of habitats available in the home range. At both levels of analysis for 1993 and 1994, it was determined that use among habitats differed than what would be expected if use occurred at random. Emergent and rooted floating aquatic vegetation ranked high in the third-order selection analysis among available habitat types for 1993 and 1994. Submersed aquatic vegetation and open water ranked high among available habitat types in the second-order selection analysis for 1993 and 1994. There was a small detectable difference in selection between 1993 and 1994 in the third-order selection analysis. In addition to analyzing habitat selection by mallard broods, several important issues concerning habitat use and selection studies are addressed. Included in this paper are discussions on the effects of triangulation error, misclassification error, definition of availability, home range estimators, and habitat use analysis methods. Results are affected by each of these issues, so each needs to be considered when planning and conducting any habitat use and selection study.
Joseph M. and Matthew S. Dick
|Developing an Analysis Process for Crime Hot Spot Identification and Comparison|
This research focuses on using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to identify crime hot spots using kernel density estimation (KDE) pertaining to residential burglary. Global statistical tests were applied prior to utilizing the KDE method to ensure valid, accurate results and limit the influence of factors that may cause misinterpretation or error. Considerations for parameter input into the KDE analysis were explored to enhance consistency with statistical tests and output accuracy. Additionally, KDE outputs were tested for predictive ability and compared with the prediction accuracy index (PAI). This process can provide a foundation for predictive analysis to be utilized by law enforcement agencies to develop crime prevention strategies.
Addisu G. Dinku
|Applying Geographic Information System (GIS) for Analyzing Changes in Tornado Intensity in Minnesota Using 1970 to 2010 Tornado Data|
Tornadoes have caused human and property damage in Minnesota. Geographic Information System (GIS) can be an important tool for understanding and analyzing the intensity of tornadoes. Using tornado data from 1970 to 2010, this study explored if tornado intensity has changed in Minnesota and if change in tornado intensity was related to population characteristics. Linear regression was used to analyze relationships and the Esri ArcGIS Hot Spot Analysis (Getis-Ord Gi*) tool was utilized to analyze and locate hot spots of change. To understand if there was a relationship between land cover and tornado intensity, the counties of Minnesota were classified as Forested, Agricultural or Twin Cities Metropolitan.
Kevin H. Donlon
|Using GIS to Improve the Services of a Real Estate Company|
A picture may be worth a thousand words but a map tells a story. It speaks to the viewer by exposing its many relationships. Its testimony is unquestioned making it a powerfully persuasive tool. This report will discuss how this tool will be used by a real estate company to improve its services, woo prospective clientele, and ultimately contribute to the company’s bottom line. A Geographic Information System (GIS) captures, analyzes, and displays data in a visual, spatial context. In essence, the product of a GIS is a map. Use of GIS technology is particularly fitting to the application of real estate practice considering that property is geospatial in nature, its associated attributes are plentiful, and the relevance of location is key. This paper describes how a large map was produced using GIS technology. The map depicts over 1,000 properties displaying the property owner’s last name, assessor’s parcel number, acreage, Williamson Act status, and it indicates which properties have been sold by Shane P. Donlon, Incorporated. The paper describes how GIS can use prior sales data to illustrate current market trends and create customized maps for market perception. The results will aid investors so that they may be well informed while contemplating expensive decisions.
Alexander M. Dublish
|Comparison of Animal Disposal Sites and Livestock Populations in Minnesota Counties|
Determining the animal disposal site capacity of a county is extremely important, especially in the event of a catastrophic emergency. Emergency events can include natural disasters, disease outbreaks, or human induced disasters. This analysis investigates the ability to dispose of large animal carcasses such as cattle, hogs, or sheep by burial in Minnesota counties and compares the respective county livestock populations. An interpretation of county soil surveys was utilized to delineate potential animal disposal sites coupled with the livestock population data by county. GIS was used to control, manipulate, and interpret a significant amount of data for a statewide analysis. This analysis develops a framework for the mitigation, planning, and the siting of animal disposal sites in the event of catastrophic mortality of livestock in Minnesota counties.
Беккер покровительственно улыбнулся и перевел взгляд на дверь в ванную. - А у Росио. Капельки Росы. Лицо мужчины из мертвенно-бледного стало красным.