When you are writing a dissertation, many words and phrases that are acceptable in conversations or informal writing are considered inappropriate.
You should try to avoid expressions that are too informal, unsophisticated, vague, exaggerated, or subjective, as well as those that are generally unnecessary or incorrect.
Bear in mind that these guidelines do not apply to text you are directly quoting from your sources (including interviews).
Academic writing is generally more formal than the writing we see in non-academic materials (including on websites). It is also more formal than how we normally speak. The following words and phrases are considered too informal for a dissertation.
|A bit||The interviews were a bit difficult to schedule||The interviews were (difficult/somewhat difficult) to schedule|
|A lot of, a couple of||A lot of studies||(Many/several/a great number of/eight) studies|
|America||A researcher in America||A researcher in (the United States/the US/the USA)|
|Isn’t, can’t, doesn’t, would’ve (or any other contraction)||The sample isn’t||The sample is not|
|Kind of, sort of||The findings were kind of significant||The findings were (somewhat significant/significant to some degree)|
|Til, till||From 2008 till 2012||From 2008 (until/to) 2012|
(i.e. the second-person point of view)
|You can clearly see the results||One can clearly see the results|
The results can clearly be seen
Some words should not be used because they do not have a scholarly feel. As utilizing too many simple terms makes your writing feel elementary, substitute more sophisticated words when possible. It’s also better to replace phrasal verbs with their one-word alternatives.
|Bad||A bad result||A (poor/negative) result|
|Big, humungous||A big sample||A (large/sizable) sample|
|Get||This model gets attention||This model receives attention|
|Give||This chapter gives an overview||This chapter (provides/offers/presents) an overview|
|Good||A good example||A (useful/prime) example|
|Show||The below figure shows||The below figure (illustrates/demonstrates/reveals)|
Using terms that are vague makes your writing imprecise and may cause people to interpret it in different ways. Avoid the below expressions and try to be as specific as possible.
|Stuff||People are concerned about their stuff||People are concerned about their (belongings, possessions, personal effects)|
|Thing||The report presents many things||The report presents many (details/findings/recommendations)|
Academic writing is usually unadorned and direct. Some adverbs of frequency (such as always and never), superlatives (which are terms that indicate something is of the highest degree, such as the best), and intensifiers (which are words that create emphasis, such as very) are often too dramatic. They may also not be accurate – you’re making a significant claim when you say something is perfect or never happens.
These terms do sometimes add value, but try to use them sparingly.
|Always, never||Researchers always argue that||Researchers (frequently/commonly/ typically) argue that|
|Perfect, best, worst, most, always, never (or any other superlative)||The perfect solution to the problem||(An ideal solution/one of the best solutions) to the problem|
|Very, extremely, really, too, so (or any other intensifier)||This theory is extremely important||This theory is (important/critical/crucial)|
Some words and phrases reveal your own opinion or bias. For instance, if you state that something will obviously happen, you are actually indicating that you think the occurrence is obvious – not stating a fact. Expressing your opinion is usually only appropriate in certain sections of a dissertation (namely the preface, acknowledgements, discussion, and reflection), so take care when using words and phrases such as those below.
|Beautiful, ugly, wonderful, horrible, good, bad||The literature review included many good articles||The literature review included many articles|
|Naturally||The participants naturally wanted to know||The participants wanted to know|
|Obviously, of course||The results obviously indicate||The results indicate|
You should strive to make your academic writing as concise as possible. Avoid adding words and phrases that do not create meaning, even if you think they give your writing a more refined feel.
|Has got/have got||This dissertation has got four chapters||This dissertation has four chapters|
|Serves to, helps to||This chapter serves to explain||This chapter explains|
It is not uncommon that words and phrases are used inappropriately, even by native speakers of a language. If you’re exposed to such mistakes often enough, you may start thinking they are correct – but it’s important that you don’t let them creep into your writing.
You should also bear in mind that some of these mistakes relate to things we all frequently mishear (for instance, we often think the speaker is saying would of instead of would have).
|Literally||The students were literally dying to participate||The students were (dying/very eager) to participate|
|Would of, had of||The study would of considered||The study would have considered|
In general, you should also try to avoid using words and phrases that fall into the following categories:
- Jargon (i.e. “insider” terminology that may be difficult for readers from other fields to understand)
- Clichés (which are expressions that are heavily overused, such as think outside of the box and but at the end of the day)
- Everyday abbreviations (e.g. photos, fridge, phone, info)
- Slang (e.g. cops, cool)
- Not gender neutral(e.g. firemen, mankind)
Reflective reports sometimes have a less formal tone; if this is what you are writing, you may not have to follow these guidelines as strictly. This may also be true if you are writing the preface or acknowledgements for your dissertation, as these sections have a more personal voice than the rest of the document.
Clichés, Slang, Informal, and Formal English
Clichés are words and phrases that tend to be overused and do not make for good writing. They should be avoided in professional and academic writing.
Some examples of clichés are:
- Raining like cats and dogs.
- Like a pig in mud.
- Over the hill.
- In the dog house.
- Back against the wall.
- Under the gun.
- My two cents.
- Stubborn as a mule.
- Bite your tongue.
- Dyed in the wool.
- Wrong side of the bed.
- The calm before the storm.
- Hair of the dog,
- On thin ice.
- Eye for an eye.
- The third time is the charm.
Slang is the use of words that are not considered standard English. It should never be used in academic or professional writing. Often, these words are developed from fads or simple laziness. Sometimes slang is used by a given group and those outside the group do not understand it. Slang can also be insulting to some people or groups.
Some slang is associated with certain time periods. In the 1960s, young people used terms like groovy, cool, dude, far-out, and trippin'! Some of those terms are still used. Modern slang includes boo (boyfriend or girlfriend), baby boomers (people born between 1944 and 1963), green (money), my bad (my mistake), and shotgun (calling dibs on the front seat of a car).
The advent of the internet and other technology has added internet and texting slang to the English repertoire. Unfortunately, this kind of slang is causing many to become lazy in their writing.
Some examples of internet and texting slang are (NoSlang.com, 2010):
- d/l- download
- OMG!- Oh my God!
- LOL- Laugh out loud
- dat- that
- m2- me too
- m9- mine
- messg- message
- s'pose- suppose
- sed- said
Informal and Formal English
Informal English includes conversational language. Contractions such as can't, won't, and I'm. Contractions are not used in formal English. Formal English is carefully worded as in academic or professional writing. Word choice is important in formal English.
For example, in formal English one would use the word whom instead of the word who in certain situations:
Formal English: With whom did you study?
Informal English: Who did you study with?
Formal English: Did you go to the store?
Informal English: Go to the store?
Formal English: Did you finish the assignment that the professor posted?
Informal English: Did you finish the assignment the professor posted?
Clichés, slang, and contractions have no place in formal English. When one is writing an academic, business, or professional paper, email, or other correspondence, the rules of formal English must be followed. When emailing or texting friends, informal English, along with clichés, slang, and contractions is perfectly acceptable.
NoSlang.com.(2010). Internet slang dictionary & translator. Retrieved from http://www.noslang.com/dictionary/