Land reclamation, the process of improving lands to make them suitable for a more intensive use. Reclamation efforts may be concerned with the improvement of rainfall-deficient areas by irrigation, the removal of detrimentalconstituents from salty or alkali lands, the diking and draining of tidal marshes, the smoothing and revegetation of strip-mine spoil areas, and similar activities.
Reclamation of arid land
In the United States, the most extensive reclamation activities are those concerned with irrigation, particularly in the western United States. The United States Bureau of Reclamation, an agency of the Department of the Interior, has as its central purpose the construction and maintenance of dams, canals, and pumping systems to bring irrigation water to arid, semiarid, or subhumid lands in the 17 western states. Among the more than 600 dams constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation are Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River and Hoover Dam on the Colorado River.
Other extensive areas reclaimed from a desert or near-desert status by irrigation are found in Israel, Egypt and other countries of the Middle East, India, Mexico, Peru, Russia, and China. Irrigation of arid lands has been practised in the Middle East for thousands of years and extensive irrigation projects were developed in what is now southwestern United States by American Indians long before the arrival of Europeans. The real impetus to reclaim the arid western United States by irrigation, however, came about the middle of the 19th century when the Mormons established settlements in the Great Salt Lake basin, and settlers drawn to California by the discovery of gold turned to irrigation in order to supply themselves with food.
The extent to which land is improved by irrigation is related to the aridity of the land in its natural state. The deserts of the Middle East, the alluvial valleys of the Central Asia, the Imperial Valley of California, and the Columbia basin are examples of areas reclaimed from a near-desert state to a highly productive intensive agriculture. Land reclamation by irrigation is, however, not limited to desert regions. Much of the land irrigated in humid areas throughout the world is used for the production of paddyrice, although irrigation of vegetable crops, usually with overhead sprinkler systems, also is practised on a considerable acreage.
Many irrigation projects have failed because of salt accumulations in the irrigated soils or the silting in of reservoirs and irrigation canals. It is essential, therefore, that provision for drainage of the irrigated lands be considered in the planning of all irrigation reclamation projects and that water relatively free from dissolved salts be used.
Reclamation of land by irrigation was extensively developed by the Soviet Union. By the late 1950s the Soviets reported a total of about 27 million acres (11 million hectares) under irrigation, about one-half of this being in the Central Asian republics. The Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers were the principal sources of irrigation water in this area. These rivers discharged into the Aral Sea, and diversion of these rivers from their natural course caused an ecological disaster in the region. With its primary sources of inflowing water gone, between 1960 and 2010, the Aral Sea shrank to a tiny fraction of its former size. The collapse of the Soviet Union left the now-independent Central Asian republics bordering the Aral Sea struggling to coordinate a response to the crisis. The loss of the world’s fourth largest body of inland water led to more-extreme temperature swings in the region, and wind storms carried contaminated dust from the exposed seabed across the region. Populations living in the region subsequently experienced a range of diseases and disorders at markedly high rates.
Reclamation of salt-affected soils
In the arid regions of the world, and along coastal areas subject to periodic inundation by sea water, soils may have such a high content of soluble salts that production of economic plants is not possible. The salts found in soils are generally the chlorides, carbonates, bicarbonates, and sulfates of sodium, with lesser amounts of potassium, magnesium, and calcium salts.
Normally, the salt is carried into the soil by water, either by upward moving saline groundwater or by saline irrigation or flood waters. As the water evaporates from the soil or is transpired by plants, the salt is left behind. Unless provision is made for removing it from the soil by flushing with nonsaline waters, the salt will accumulate until plant growth is inhibited. Thus, salts tend to accumulate in poorly drained soils where water does not move down through the soil profile and out in the drainage water and in soils of arid areas where the annual addition of nonsaline water to the surface soil in the form of rain is insufficient to wash the salts downward. Since all irrigation waters carry at least some salt, irrigation may hasten the process of salt accumulation in soils, and reclamation of arid lands by irrigation may be followed by a need for reclamation of salty lands by drainage and leaching.
The salt in soils dissolves in the soil water and damages plant growth by preventing the plants from getting needed water from the soil, since the energy required to remove a given quantity of water from a salt solution increases as the salt concentration of the solution increases. In some cases, the dissolved salts may be toxic to plants when taken up by the roots. In addition to their detrimental effects on plants, sodium ions from the dissolved salt may become adsorbed by the clay particles of the soil and render the soil very sticky when wet and hard and cloddy when dry. Soils containing significant amounts of adsorbed sodium are nearly impervious to water and roots. These detrimental accumulations of sodium are formed through a process called cation exchange.
Most productive soils have calcium cations adsorbed on the surfaces of the clay particles. But when such a soil is treated with a salt solution high in sodium and low in calcium, sodium cations from the salt solution replace the calcium cations held by the soil, and a so-called “sodic soil” results. These cations of sodium remain adsorbed by the soil after the salt solution is drained away. Whenever sodium cations are in excess of about 10 percent of the total amount of cations held in adsorbed form by the soil, a sodic soil of undesirable physical properties results. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) uses the term solonetz (from the Russian sol etz “strongly salty”) to describe sodic soils.
The reclamation of salt-affected soils follows the exact reverse of the process by which they are formed. The first step is to improve the drainage so that upward movement of ground water to the soil surface ceases and water applied to the surface can move down through the soil profile. Then fresh nonsaline water is applied to the surface by irrigation. This fresh water washes out the excess salts, which are carried away in the drainage water. In the case of sodic soils, amendments that will supply a fresh source of soluble calcium to replace the sodium adsorbed by the soil are added. and leaching is carried out until the replaced sodium is removed. Gypsum (calcium sulfate) is the most common amendment used to supply calcium for the reclamation of sodic soils.
Procedures for the diagnosis and reclamation of salt-affected soils are generally used for planning this type of reclamation activity throughout the world. Saline and sodic soils are found in extensive areas in Russia, Pakistan, the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, and in the western United States. Deep tillage to break up the horizons high in adsorbed sodium is a common technique used for the reclamation of these soils.
Reclamation of swampy lands
Where excess water accumulates in and on the soil, the land is rendered unfit for production of many crops. Even where the wet condition is of fairly short duration, cultural operations required for crop production may be delayed past the optimum planting date or crops already planted may be drowned out. The reclamation of such wet areas is centred on means of removing the water from these areas more rapidly than it is removed in their natural condition. This process is termed drainage.
The first requirement of a drainage project is an outlet for the water. One of the most common means of providing this outlet is to dig a ditch from the swampy area to a river, sea, or other natural body of water. The size of the ditch is determined by the amount of water to be carried and the gradient of slope along the ditch. The topography of the land, the amount of water to be removed in a given time (called the drainage coefficient), and the distribution and nature of underlying strata are factors determining the design of the drainage systems for moving the water from the land to the outlet.
Of particular importance is the permeability, or ability to transmit water, of the soil and underlying strata. If the soil and underlying strata have a low permeability, a quality frequently found in clay soils, the excess water must be removed by surface flow. This may require regularly spaced small ditches throughout the area to be drained and a land forming or grading operation to provide slopes toward the field ditches and to eliminate low spots between ditches. If the soil is permeable, the excess water may be removed through tile lines installed beneath the surface of the soil. The tiles are traditionally made of fired clay or concrete, although corrugated plastic tubing is also commonly used. The spacing of the tile lines is governed by the permeability of the soil. The more permeable the soil, the farther apart the tile lines. The tile lines may be installed in a regular pattern in large wet areas or in a random pattern where critical wetness is confined to scattered spots in the area. Tile drains have the advantage over open ditch drains in that farm operations can be conducted across the tile lines, making it possible to use larger and more efficient fields, with no loss of land occupied by ditches.
Occasionally, underground drains are constructed without use of tile by drawing a bullet-shaped tool through the soil at a depth of 18–36 inches (46–91 cm). This tool leaves a channel through the subsoil that may serve the same drainage function as a tile line. The practice of forming unlined underground drains is called mole drainage. After a period of time, depending upon the stability of the soil, the unlined channels collapse and the mole drainage operation must be repeated. With the development of low-cost flexible plastic materials, devices for lining mole drains with perforated plastic liners to increase the life of the drains were developed.
If a permeable strata such as gravel underlies the area to be drained, widely spaced open ditches dug into the permeable strata usually provide effective drainage. Frequently, poorly drained swampy areas are occupied by soils very high in organic matter, called peats and mucks. When these organic soils are drained, the improved soil aeration brings about an increase in the rate of oxidation of the organic material, resulting in a loss of the soil material itself. This leads to a subsidence of the land surface, and, in some cases, the land surface may sink several feet. Subsidence of drained organic soils is more rapid in warm climates than in cooler areas. Appreciable subsidence has taken place in the reclaimed organic soils of the Everglades of Florida.
Some areas are too wet for crop production because of recurrent flooding from adjacent rivers and creeks. Reclamation of this type of wetland is usually effected by building levees along the stream to keep it confined in its channel. If necessary, excess water originating in the protected area is lifted over the levee by pumps. An extensive area of land is protected by levees in the lower Mississippi valley of the United States.
Projects for the reclamation of land by drainage are found in England, Europe, and the eastern United States. Large areas of organic soils have been reclaimed by drainage near Minsk, Belarus. Mole drainage is used in England, in New Zealand, and in Australia. Reclamation of wetland by drainage is an ancient practice, having been used by the Romans along the Tiber River.
Reclamation of coastal areas
Where offshore lands or tidal marshes are covered by shallow water and additional land is critically needed, the land can be reclaimed by construction of dikes roughly parallel to the shoreline, followed by drainage of the area between the dikes and the natural coastline. Where a sediment-laden stream can be diverted into the area between the dikes and the shoreline, the sediment from the stream may be used to build the diked-off land to a higher level, thus facilitating the drainage operation.
Occasionally, reclamation of tidal marshland can be accomplished by closing the mouth of tidal estuaries by dikes. Where the land surface is above low-tide level, a dewatering system based on tide gates which discharge water into the sea at low tide and automatically close to prevent reentry of seawater at high tide may be used. In other instances, pumps have been used to lift water over the dikes. The use of pumps permits the reclamation of lands that are below low-tide level. The most notable example of reclamation of coastal lands is the polder (tract of artificially drained land) system developed adjacent to the Zuiderzee in the Netherlands.
Other examples of this type of reclamation are found in England. During the colonial period, extensive areas of tidal marsh were reclaimed for rice production in the Carolinas and Georgia in the United States. The systems of dikes used in reclaiming marshlands in the Carolinas and Georgia were not maintained and most of the diked-off land reverted to tidal marsh. Areas newly reclaimed from inundation by seawater contain so much salt that most plants will not grow. For this reason the procedures for reclamation of salt-affected soils must be used in addition to diking and draining in order to develop productive agricultural land.
Some marshlands formed in brackish water are very high in sulfides. As long as air is excluded from the soil because of saturation with water, these sulfides are stable and the soil will produce marsh plants. When the soil is drained, the improvement of soil aeration brings about an oxidation of the sulfides to sulfates, and if the soil is low in basic constituents free sulfuric acid is produced, making the soil too acid for any plants to grow. Marsh soils high in sulfides are termed cat clays by the Dutch. Very large quantities of lime are required to neutralize the sulfates and make the soil suitable for crop production. Unless the sulfide-containing sediments naturally contain sufficient lime to neutralize the potential sulfate content, drainage and reclamation are rarely attempted, and these areas are left as wildlife preserves.
The only feasible method of producing crops on cat clays is to grow rice using methods that provide for planting and harvesting the rice without draining the land. Inasmuch as these methods preclude the use of modern machinery, the use of cat clays for rice production is confined to Southeast Asia and other areas where the supply of farm labour is abundant in relation to the supply of available land.
Reclamation of mine spoils
Where mineral deposits are near the surface of the earth, frequently they are exposed for mining by excavating the entire overburden with power shovels. This process is called surface mining and was widely used as a method for extracting coal in the Ohio River valley and in England. This technique is also used for mining phosphate deposits, gypsum, gravel, limestone, copper, iron, and other minerals. The overburden removed to expose the mined deposit is dropped by the power shovel in a series of generally conical mounds.
In strip mining, the operation is conducted so as to deposit the overburden material in a previous excavation left after the mined deposit is removed. The final excavation is not filled. The strip-mined area is then left as a series of piles of overburden, called spoil banks, with a deep trench at the side where operations ceased. The piles of overburden are generally loose and porous but barren of plant life and only slowly revegetated by natural processes. Historically, when the mineral deposits in an area were exhausted, the site was abandoned, leaving a lunarlike landscape that was unsuitable for development. This led to an increased interest in the problem of more rapidly reclaiming and revegetating the spoil-bank areas. By 1950 the states of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Indiana had enacted legislation requiring strip-mine operators to replant or smooth and replant strip-mined areas. A similar wave of reclamation of surface mines took place in Eastern Europe after the fall of the Soviet Union.
The problem of revegetation is complicated by the irregular, frequently steep topography of the spoil-bank area and the raw, infertile nature of the spoil material. Smoothing of the area is likely to result in excessive compaction of the spoil material, rendering it less suited to plant growth. For this reason, reclamation of spoil banks is generally confined to reforestation, to development of grazing land, or to reclaiming for recreational areas. Reclamation to the point where cultivated crops can be produced is rare. Materials overlying coal deposits are often high in iron sulfides. Under the well-aerated conditions present in loose spoil-bank material, these sulfides are oxidized, and highly acid conditions may develop in the spoil. The process is similar to the development of acidity in cat clays in reclaimed tidal marshes. In mine spoil, however, drainage is generally good, and the acid constituents will be removed by leaching in a period of years. In some states of the U.S., the legislation governing strip mining requires grading of the spoil areas to form water-retaining benches to hasten the leaching process. Pine trees are frequently used to reforest spoils high in sulfides because of the acid tolerance of the pines.
Reclamation of eroded, infertile, and “new” lands
Where soil erosion is severe, a land area may be denuded of topsoil and interlaced with a dendritic, or branched, system of steep-sided watercourses called gullies. These areas are generally devoid of vegetation, and sediment eroded from them may menace lower-lying lands or water retention structures.
In humid regions these eroded areas are usually reclaimed by reforestation accompanied by exclusion of livestock from the area. If the gullied area is not large and topographic conditions permit, a diversion ditch to prevent runoff from higher lying areas from entering the gullied area may hasten the reclamation process. Native plant invasion and succession may revegetate eroded areas if they can be protected from the cause of the accelerated erosion. Where the subsoil material is friable and fertile, the land may be graded to obliterate the gullies and permit production of pasture or other close growing crops.
In the southeastern United States, kudzu, a leguminous vine, was frequently used to stabilize gullied areas and prevent erosion. The introduction of this aggressive invasive species led to its own problems, however, as kudzu overran native plants and trees, earning the nickname “the vine that ate the South.” In the 21st century such missteps, as well as growing environmental concerns, led developers to consider sustainability alongside purely economic concerns when reclamation projects were undertaken.
The abstract destructions of the original landscape are a commentary on the toxicity of our consumer culture.
This piece originally appeared in the Sage Magazine 2017 Print Edition: Justice Out of Place.
Until the mid-1940s, the Freshkillsarea of Staten Island, New York consisted mainly of coastal marshes and tidal creeks. In 1948, the land was opened as a landfill. Though it was originally intended only for temporary use, the facility grew until it eventually accepted all of New York City’s waste. Today, the Freshkills Park land reclamation project is a tremendous effort to revitalize the landscape, improve water quality, fortify the coastline, and reclaim the space for local residents and wildlife.
When visiting the landfill earlier on in its transformation period, I noticed how beautiful the landscape was, with open space and the New York skyline along thehorizon. It occurred to me, though,that this incredible and vast view was only possible because of the mounds of trash that accumulated over time. I was standing upon years of New York City’s built up waste. I took a few photos to capture the quiet calm of the site, and then placed the film negatives in the trash for several weeks, letting the collective liquids and residue from the garbage alter the physical image. The negative serves as a representation of the land that has interacted with this waste over time, which leaves its mark underneath the surface. The abstract destructions of the original landscape are a commentary on the toxicity of our consumer culture, for both our land and our own human health.
Andrea Ibarra is a Brooklyn-based visual artist and graduate of The New School. She uses experimental photography to explore her passion for science, and creates abstraction using the often-overlooked chemical reactions that are a part of our everyday lives.